Refer to paragraph 1 and a) translate the sentence containing “therefore”; b) what is the meaning of “as” in the following phrase “crude as it comes out of the ground is dark, gooey stuff”?
Read paragraph 2 and translate the word “functions” in the following sentence: “These functions often are categorized as "upstream" or "downstream."
Refer to paragraph 4 and using a dictionary, identify the meaning of “enter”.
Look at paragraph 5. What is meant by the two “those” in the last sentence? Do they have the same meaning?
Study paragraph 7 and say why the author says “indeed”.
Look at paragraph 8 and translate the sentence: “Their concentrations may be even narrower; some independents focus on exploration, while some prefer to conduct only development and production operations.” What is the meaning of “while” in the sentence?
Go to paragraph 9. What is meant by “all else being equal”?
In paragraph 10 a) what is meant by “both perspectives”? b) explain the meaning of the word “internally”; c) translate the sentence: “Whatever its other merits and drawbacks, integration brings into focus the vital dual nature of crude oil prices as both key determinant of producer revenues and principal cost for refiners.”
Find English equivalents to the following Russian word combinations: