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Text analysis

Ex. 6


  1. Refer to paragraph 1 and a) translate the sentence containing “therefore”; b) what is the meaning of “as” in the following phrase “crude as it comes out of the ground is dark, gooey stuff”?

  2. Read paragraph 2 and translate the word “functions” in the following sentence: “These functions often are categorized as "upstream" or "downstream."

  3. Refer to paragraph 4 and using a dictionary, identify the meaning of “enter”.

  4. Look at paragraph 5. What is meant by the two “those” in the last sentence? Do they have the same meaning?

  5. Study paragraph 7 and say why the author says “indeed”.

  6. Look at paragraph 8 and translate the sentence: “Their concentrations may be even narrower; some independents focus on exploration, while some prefer to conduct only development and production operations.” What is the meaning of “while” in the sentence?

  7. Go to paragraph 9. What is meant by “all else being equal”?

  8. In paragraph 10 a) what is meant by “both perspectives”? b) explain the meaning of the word “internally”; c) translate the sentence: “Whatever its other merits and drawbacks, integration brings into focus the vital dual nature of crude oil prices as both key determi­nant of producer revenues and principal cost for refiners.”

Ex. 7


Find English equivalents to the following Russian word combinations:

Part I


Прежде всего

Неизвестная величина

Содержит много серы и металлов

Почти прозрачная

Специальное химическое преобразование

Посредством процесса переработки

Люди, которые знакомы с ней

по крайней мере

перерабатывать добытые флюиды

определение перспективного участка

действовать по отдельности

ранее отдельные операции

автомобильные перевозки

говоря простым языком


Part II

Смена собственника

структура торговли

специализация может быть уже


Ex. 8


Find in Text I the names of specialties related to oil industry and make a list of them.

Ex. 9


Match A & B, and say what each specialist does.

A

B

  1. Geologist

  1. drills wells

  1. Geophysicist

  1. develops the field

  1. Geologist

  1. refines crude oil

  1. Drilling crew

  1. explores for oil

  1. Production engineer

  1. trucks, pipelines and ships oil and gas

  1. Chemical engineer

  1. combines geophysical information with field observations and information from any wells drilled in the study area to gener­ate a "prospect"—a location to be drilled

  1. Transportation engineer

  1. thinks of ways to make consumers buy products rather than those of competitors

  1. Marketing specialist

  1. produces seismic sections and interprets them to produce a map of the underground

Words

Ex. 10


Match words in A with their explanations in B

A

B

  1. Blend

  1. petroleum in its natural condition, before it has been treated in an industrial process

  1. Consumer

  1. include

  1. Contractor

  1. to provide people with something that they need or want, especially regularly over a long period of time

  1. Convey

  1. to gain control over or responsibility for

  1. Crude oil

  1. material of any sort, of which something is made

  1. Feasible

  1. a person or company that makes an agreement to do work for another company

  1. Feedstock

  1. a material such as coal or oil in its natural state before being treated in order to make things

  1. Involve

  1. a person who buys and uses goods and services

  1. Raw material

  1. a substance that is used to make a product

  1. Revenue

  1. to thoroughly mix together soft or liquid substances to form a single smooth substance

  1. Rock

  1. the worth of something in money or as compared with other goods for which it might be changed

  1. Stuff

  1. a large piece or mass of stone

  1. Supply

  1. able to be done, possible

  1. Take over

  1. money that a business or organization receives over a period of time, especially from selling goods or services

  1. Value

  1. to take or carry from one place to another

Ex. 11


Build words and translate them into Russian:

employ

employer

employee


employment

-------------

employable







blend

--------------







-------------------




category




characterize






















conductivity










consumption

------------







conveyor




----------------




compete







----------------
















contaminative







-----------------

contract










determinant













-----------------

enhancement










extract










generator







generative







heat







locate







--------------

-----------------










lubricant







manufacturer













organizer
















performance

--------------

performing










product













recognition













refining










--------------

specialization













storage













supply
















usable

Ex.12


Some English words are used as both nouns and verbs without changing their graphical form, e.g. use:

The use of oil for lighting is not very practical.

People use oil and its products for heating and powering engines.

Mind the pronunciation!

Use (n) - [ju:s]

Use (v) - [ju:z]

Here are some more words used as both nouns and verbs without changing their graphical form.

Work in pairs. Check the pronunciation of these words in the dictionary and write down Russian equivalents to these pairs in blank spaces:

Concentrate __________________ to concentrate _______________________

Market __________________ to market _______________________

Focus __________________ to focus ________________________

Extract __________________ to extract ________________________

Value __________________ to value ________________________

Service __________________ to service ________________________

Think of your own sentences with these pairs. Write them down.




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