Ex. There’s a number of reasons why these two companies merged.
Существует ряд причин, почему эти две компании объединились.
thus так, таким образом
Ex. We hope the new machine will work faster, thus reducing our costs. Надеемся, что новая машина будет работать быстрее, таким образом наши затраты уменьшаться.
while хотя; несмотря на то, что; в то время как.
Ex. While teaching standards could be raised, more funding would also help. Хотя требования к уровню преподавания можно было бы повысить, увеличение финансирования также не помешало бы.
Their country has plenty of oil while ours has none. В их стране много нефти, в то время как у нас ее совсем нет.
at least по меньшей мере, по крайней мере, хотя бы
Ex. He had at least £100,000 in savings.
Сумма его сбережений составляла, по меньшей мере, 100 000 фунтов стерлингов.
both … and и… и; как…, так и …
Ex. Downstream involves both processing and marketing.
Даунстрим включает как переработку, так и маркетинг.
Translate the sentences into Russian:
Before WW II foreign trade of crude oil was practically unknown, because of the relatively high cost of transporting crude rather than products.
Taiwan’s gas demand is growing as electric power generators turn away from nuclear sources in favor of LNG. In fact, in 2004 gas-fired power plants accounted for 10% of Taiwan’s electric generation.
I will speak about energy consumption in the developing countries in greater detail in the third part of my presentation.
Futures trading in crude oil and key products developed rapidly in the 1980s. Chapter 9 will discuss the subject in greater detail. At this point it is important to recognize the extent to which futures trading open a window on the oil market.
Oil industry is indeed a collection of industries.
The rate at which oil can be produced from a given field depends upon a number of factors.
A modern refinery involves a number of processes. The number of processes depends on the type of oil.
When the dollar is weak against, say, the Japanese yen, crude oil producers who spend a lot of money in Japan suffer. A weak dollar thus influences their trading behavior.
What is important to remember is that oil can rise without creating inflation. And inflation can occur while oil prices are falling.
Producers do not base their price decisions on refinery runs, at least not directly.
Supply, demand, and price constantly push and pull at one another as the result of millions of producers, processors, traders, and consumers making decisions to their best economic interests. Price is both a product of this process and a key factor in the outcome.
Just as there are different types of petroleum products, there are different types of crude and different categories of price for both crude and products.
Historically, empires have been exporters of capital, rather than importers like the US.
Match the first part of the sentences in column A with the second part in column C using useful words in column B:
Before WW II foreign trade of crude oil was practically unknown, because of the relatively high cost of transporting crude
the number of places oil could leak from.
We will examine the parts of the oil industry
Trucking, pipelining, and shipping are
in greater detail
some prefer to conduct only development and production operations.
Oil underground has no value, therefore, until someone first finds it and then conveys it to the Earth's surface, or
at this point
all very distinct businesses, each with its own professional specialty.
The unit construction reduced
…there are independent producers, which specialize in upstream work.
Some independents focus on exploration,
proves that the conveyance is economically and technically feasible.
Some companies, for example, organize around particular functions
upstream and downstream operations.
Other companies organize around the concept of integration — ownership of
of oil and gas platforms in Australia.
What is important
is to recognize the unique characteristics of the petroleum supply functions and the people who perform them.
– ing - forms
Translate the phrases with -ing-forms into Russian:
heating oil; lubricating oil; stuff, mixed with mud and salt water and containing metals; a broad industry category called processing; business, including exploration and production; the manufacturing part of the industry; sophisticated engineering; oil-bearing layers; method of enhancing production; a blending of once-distinct functions; big molecules, constituting crude oil; сonnecting oil fields with refineries and refineries with service stations is the transportation network; trucking, pipelining, and shipping are all very distinct businesses; independent refiners, which concentrate on processing and marketing; the understanding of which is crucial to an understanding of petroleum economics.
Read and translate the following sentences with –ing forms:
Many developing countries subsidize oil consumption in order to stimulate economic activity. This is common in the petroleum-producing countries of Latin America,
Rising oil prices by themselves cannot cause inflation.
The Soviet Union greatly expanded its internal pipeline system during the 1960s in order to link its central Asian gasfields to the main Soviet consuming areas.
As more becomes known about the oil-bearing rock more successful finds are made.
A rising price of crude oil is neither inflation nor the cause of inflation.
The prices of all goods rise for reasons other than changing supply-demand relationships for those goods.
The degree of inflation in important trading economies as well as the state of international currency markets play crucial roles in the condition of oil markets.
"Who sets the price of oil?" someone inevitably asks, wanting a comprehensible answer that can be condensed into a sentence or two.
Before the First World War international trade in oil was structured around product exports from refineries located in or near the main producing areas.
In Saudi Arabia, whose crude output continued to be processed in Bahrain throughout the war, the construction of the Ras Tanura refinery— regarded as a high military priority by the US Government—started in 1944, enabling the plant to start production in late 1945.
A crude containing very small traces of sulphur is termed very sweet.
To consumers deciding whether to buy fuel it matters little where it comes from.
At today's rate of use there is still enough oil to last the next 42 years, according to BP oil company although those concerned about Peak Oil3 say we are closer to running out given demand is expected to rise strongly in the short-term.
One more concept is crucial to an understanding of petroleum price movements.
Imported crude oil arrives by tanker for unloading at marine terminals.
Futures trading in crude oil and key products developed rapidly in the 1980s.
The Russian oil industry developed a major export capability in the mid-1880s, when the opening of a trans-Caucasian railway made it possible to ship oil from the Black Sea.
Primary distillation, or "topping", is based on the fact that each fraction of oil has a different boiling point.
Official government selling prices became the focal point of the OPEC pricing system after the mid-1970s.
Arrange the following into sentences:
integrated both and crude buys sells it an company.
the business manufacturing industry downstream is the the part of.
employs exploration for the sciences geophysics geology. of and example
extracted oil must found crude and processed be
the engineers mainly chemists downstream industry employs and petroleum
are specialize in which producers upstream work there independent.
feasible oil sometimes is not convey ground it economically to to the.
is processing refining called.
for is more facilities there need storage.
main gas fuel market natural oil’s on competitor the is.
last of nation’s oil increased year consumption gas the and.
different used enhance are oil recovery methods to.
a operation drilling oil sophisticated for is.
the the crucial speed success to is reform of.
upwards are oil tending prices.
Translate the following sentences into Russian:
Overproduction tends to cause deflation.
On November 30, 2007 Bruce Power signed a letter of intent to acquire Energy Alberta and take over the project.
Independent companies now dominate exploration and development in Alaska’s two producing provinces.
Integrated oil and gas companies tend today to reduce their E&D activities in Alaska while independents move in.
Consumers reduced consumption during 2004 in response to gasoline prices that were 20% higher than in 2003.
One of the historical effects of technology was that large integrated companies were granted a monopoly over the supply of energy in many countries and, on the back of this, achieved a monopoly over producing oil and gas.
Throughout the 150-year history of the oil industry, technological progress has been a force controlling production levels.
Refineries have processes for turning the lower-value products of distillation into higher-value products.
Pipelines convey oil, gas and petroleum products from the wellhead to consumers.
A state oil enterprise has general permission to engage foreign oil companies as contractors in order to assist the state oil enterprise in fulfilling its task.
The processing of crude into various refined products, together with the marketing of these products, is known as the downstream.
Petroleum exploration, development and production require long-term investments.
Many developing countries subsidize oil consumption in order to stimulate economic activity—or to keep government leaders in power.
Like supply and demand, price cannot be viewed in isolation.
Crude oil purchased by the U.S. government goes into storage facilities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.
Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures.
The 1986 oil price collapse benefited oil-consuming countries such as the United States, Japan, Europe, and Third World nations, but represented a serious loss in revenue for oil-producing countries in northern Europe, the Soviet Union, and OPEC.
Azerbaijan produces about 800,000 barrels of oil per day and 1 bcm of gas.
Libya is considered a highly attractive oil area due to its low cost of oil production (as low as $1 perbarrel at some fields), and proximity to European markets
Petroleum engineers determine optimum rates and methods of production.
A modern refinery involves a number of processes, each designed to either break down or rearrange hydrocarbon molecules.
Transport is crucial to the economy and culture of Niger, this vast landlocked nation, with cities separated by huge uninhabited deserts, mountain ranges, and other natural features.
When prices of a necessity such as oil rise significantly, demand for luxuries tends to go down and their prices, therefore, to fall.
According to the doctrine prevailing in the 1960-s in the Soviet geological science Siberia was not considered an oil-bearing region.
In 1859 Edwin Drake drilled the first oil __________in Pennsylvania. In terms of both time and distance, however, it was very far from where oil was first discovered by ___________. Oil was first _________in China in around 200 BC. Long before 200 BC, however, people had realized the __________of crude oil and some of its properties. As early as 3500 BC, in what is now Iraq, the Sumerians used asphalt as an indestructible adhesive for bricks4. From 2200 BC, following the Sumerians, the Babylonians built bridges, walls, tunnels, roads, the Hanging Gardens and the seven-storey Tower of Babel with asphalt.
Under the pharaohs the Egyptians mummified their dead with a special ________ mixture of bitumen and other things. By the 2nd century AD, the Romans also burned _________oil as a fumigant. By the early 10th century, Arab nations understood that it could be distilled.
Oil, however, has done people both _________and _________. In the story of __________and __________, fire and conflict have often taken place. In the 20th century battles and even whole wars have been fought over the _________of oil, and have been won or lost through the possession or loss of it. The same was true of the Middle Ages. Moreover, in the times of the Roman Empire it was discovered that the________ of petroleum and calcium oxide was highly explosive. This had such obvious _________ that it became a closely guarded secret.
But for most people the most common reason for burning oil or gas has been ___________ simple domestic lighting and heating. In 1272, passing through the town of Baku, the great traveler Marco Polo noted that everyone used oil lamps, and that people came from miles around to buy oil. Half a millennium later, in 1795, Britain’s first ambassador to Borneo wrote about the island’s successful oil industry; there were at least 500 wells (all dug by hand) _________ oil for lighting and heating to over 7 million people.
Such comforts did not exist in Europe even then, in the late 18th century; and Europe’s earlier Dark Ages were not only metaphorically but literary so. When the sun went down in the evening that, for most people, was that.
In any social or economic sphere, the difference between having light after nightfall and having none is amazing. It was not that the Europeans in the Dark Ages ignored the possibilities of oil; those few who were educated certainly knew it existed. The reason that they did not _________ oil was simply that there was no oil, or so very little that it was not ________ to produce it. If there had been significant land-based resources of oil near London, Paris, Rome or any other centre of western Europe’s medieval civilization, they could have been exploited at the earliest possible date; and the entire world’s history would have been different.
2. Define the functional style of the text
Translate into English:
Бензин, топливо коммунально-бытового назначения и смазочное масло являются продуктами переработки сырой нефти.
Загрязняющие вещества наносят большой вред окружающей среде.
Люди давно поняли ценность нефти.
Газ доставляют потребителям по трубопроводам.
Технико-экономическое обоснование проводят для того, чтобы выяснить, следует ли инвестировать средства в какой-либо проект.
К концу 1950-х годов стала возможной перевозка газа по морю.
Переработка сырой нефти в очищенные продукты и маркетинг этих продуктов относятся к вторичным отраслям нефтегазового хозяйства.
Для того чтобы добывать углеводородное сырье требуется сложное оборудование.
ТЭО проекта подтвердило его экономическую эффективность.
Translate Text B into Russian in writing. Use your dictionary.
Main Sectors of the Oil Industry
The location and extraction of crude petroleum constitute the upstream end of the oil industry, while the processing of crude into various refined products, together with the marketing of these products, is known as the downstream end. Trading activities between the extraction and refining stages constitute a "midstream" area, which emerged as a distinct sector of the international oil industry in the late 1970s as increasing volumes of crude came to be marketed outside the formerly dominant "closed circuit" of integrated upstream and downstream interests controlled by the major companies.
Render into English
Нефтяная и газовая промышленность представляют собой сложные отрасли производства. Для обеспечения добычи нефти и газа, производства нефтепродуктов и доставки их потребителям требуется участие большого количества организаций и предприятий, осуществляющих различные технологические процессы, тесно связанные между собой. В настоящее время можно выделить следующие сферы деятельности в нефтегазовой отрасли: поиск и разведка месторождений; бурение и строительство скважин; добыча нефти, газа и конденсата; транспорт, хранение и сбыт нефти, газа и продуктов их переработки.
Основными звеньями «нефтяной и газовой цепочки» являются добыча и переработка нефти и газа, потому что они создают продукцию – сырую нефть и газ и продукты их переработки. Деятельность остальных сфер подчинена им.