Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования
«ПЕНЗЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Пенза ИИЦ ПГУ 2012
УДК 802.0 (075)
Рецензент: профессор кафедры иностранных языков
ПГТА, канд.пед.наук О.Н.Ясаревская
Machine-Building Automation. Автоматизация машиностроения: учебное пособие/, О.С.Воячек, В.В.Деминой, Л.В.Аристова, С.А.Кокурина, Г.Б.Моисеевой, Ю.В.Шепелевой; – Пенза: Информационно-издательский центр ПензГУ, 2012. – 155 с.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов машиностроительных специальностей. Задания для чтения составлены на материале текстов, взятых из оригинальных источников, и способствуют развитию навыков изучающего и ознакомительного чтения, а также формированию коммуникативной компетенции в сфере профессионального общения. Тексты сопровождаются упражнениями и заданиями для тренировки фонетических, лексических, грамматических и коммуникативных навыков.
Учебное пособие составлено на кафедре «Английский язык» ПГУ.
УДК 802.0 (075)
UNIT 1 from mechanization to automation vocabulary
ancestor – предок, прародитель
to assemble – собирать, монтировать
assembly – сборка; узел; агрегат
data – данные; информация
to develop – создавать; развивать; совершенствовать; разрабатывать
development – развитие; сооружение; разработка; усовершенствование
to drive – приводить в движение; приводить в действие
driving force – движущая сила
engine – машина; двигатель
steam engine – паровая машина
analytical engine – аналитическая машина
to evolve – эволюционировать, развиваться
extension – расширение; распространение; продолжение
lever – рычаг, рукоятка
loom – ткацкий станок
to magnify – увеличивать; усиливать
mill – мельница
muscle – мускул; сила
to operate – работать; управлять
pattern – рисунок, узор; образец
to power – приводить в действие, служить приводным двигателем
power – сила; мощность, энергия
precursor – предшественник; предвестник
to process – обрабатывать
pulley – блок; шкив
to punch – пробивать; перфорировать
replacement – замещение, замена
sail – парус; крыло ветряной мельницы
shuttle – челнок
tape – лента
technology – технология; техника; технические средства
technology of automation(=automation technology) – автоматизированная техника; автоматизированные технические средства; технические средства автоматизации
thread – нитка, нить
tool – инструмент; станок
trip-hammer – рычажный молот
wheel – колесо, маховик
Before reading the text look through the quiz and try to answer the questions.
Simplemechanical devices, such as the wheel, the lever and the pulley
did not require strength to operate.
were made of stone.
magnified the power of human muscle.
The first trip-hammers powered by water operated in
The device that marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution was
the steam engine.
the mechanical clock.
The Jacquard loom, one of the first concepts of a programmable machine, was designed
more than 2000 years ago.
at the beginning of the XIX century.
Charles Babbage, an English mathematician, proposed a device that was the ancestor of
Now read the text and check your answers. text 1a
Historical Development of Automation
The technology of automation has evolved from the related field of mechanization, which had its beginnings in the Industrial Revolution. Mechanization refers to the replacement of human (or animal) power with mechanical power of some form. The driving force behind mechanization has been humankind's propensity to create tools and mechanical devices. Some of the important historical developments in mechanization and automation leading to modern automated systems are described here.
The first tools made of stone represented prehistoric man's attempts to direct his own physical strength under the control of human intelligence. Thousands of years were undoubtedly required for the development of simple mechanical devices and machines such as the wheel, the lever, and the pulley, by which the power of human muscle could be magnified.
The next extension was the development of powered machines that did not require human strength to operate. Examples of these machines include waterwheels, windmills, and simple steam-driven devices. More than 2,000 years ago the Chinese developed trip-hammers powered by flowing water and waterwheels. The early Greeks experimented with simple reaction motors powered by steam. The mechanical clock, representing a rather complex assembly with its own built-in power source (a weight), was developed about 1335 in Europe. Windmills with mechanisms for automatically turning the sails were developed during the Middle Ages in Europe and the Middle East. The steam engine represented a major advance in the development of powered machines and marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. During the two centuries since the introduction of the Watt steam engine powered engines and machines have been devised that obtain their energy from steam, electricity, and chemical, mechanical, and nuclear sources.
Another important development in the history of automation was the Jacquard loom, which demonstrated the concept of a programmable machine. About 1801 the French inventor Joseph-Marie Jacquard devised an automatic loom capable of producing complex patterns in textiles by controlling the motions of many shuttles of different coloured threads. The selection of the different patterns was determined by a program contained in steel cards in which holes were punched. These cards were the ancestors of the paper cards and tapes that control modern automatic machines. The concept of programming a machine was further developed later in the 19th century when Charles Babbage, an English mathematician, proposed a complex, mechanical “analytical engine" that could perform arithmetic and data processing. Although Babbage was never able to complete it, this device was the precursor of the modern digital computer.
Look up the following words in a dictionary and write out the transcription of the words:
При переводе цепочки существительных следует помнить, что только последнее слово в цепочке отвечает на вопрос «что?/кто?», а все предшествующие определяют последующие, отвечая на вопросы «какой?/для чего?/чей?»
Пример: Industry requirements – (что?) потребности (чего?) промышленности
1. automation technology, 2. stone tool, 3. trip-hammer, 4. power source,
5. windmill mechanism, 6. water power, 7. textiles patterns, 8. shuttle motion,
9. card hole, 10. data processing, 11. powered machine development, 12. programmable machine concept, 13. automatic loom program, 14. automatic machine control.
VII. Look through the text 1A and add the second word to complete the word-combination:
1. industrial …
2. mechanical …
3. human …
4. powered …
5. complex …
6. automatic …
7. nuclear …
8. digital …
9. important ...
10. modern …
VIII. Look through the text and find the English equivalents:
1. промышленная революция, 2. исторические достижения, 3. следующий шаг, 4. сложная конструкция (агрегат), 5. паровая машина, 6. источник ядерной энергии, 7. важное достижение, 8. обработка информации.
Find 9 mechanical devices and machines mentioned in the text:
Read and translate the sentences paying attention to different meanings of the underlined words:
1. a. The early tools were made of stone.
b. Modern tools are programmable machines.
2. a. Automation has developed from mechanization.
b. The first powered machines were developed during the Middle Ages.
3. a. The process of producing complex patterns in textiles could be realized by Jacquard loom in 1801.
b. Charles Babbage proposed to process data by means of his mechanical “analytical engine”.
4. a. Powered machines did not require human strength to operate.
b. The Jacquard loom was operated by means of a program contained in steel cards with punched holes.
Fill in the blanks and translate the sentences:
a. engine, b. power, c. devices, d. water, e. computer, f. mechanisms, g. assembly, h. machine.
Mechanization refers to the replacement of human … with mechanical power.
Simple mechanical … were replaced by powered machines.
The Chinese developed trip-hammers powered by flowing … .
The mechanical clock represented a complex … with its own built-in power source.
Windmills had … for automatical turning the sails.
The Watt steam … marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
The Jacquard loom demonstrated the concept of a programmable … .
The “analytical engine” proposed by Charles Babbage was the precursor of the modern digital…
XII. Translate the text. grammar revision exercises.
1. Participle I – Using feedback control machines can regulate their operations.
Используя обратную связь машины могут регулировать свои действия.
2.Gerund – The concept of programming a machine was developed by Charles Babbage.
3.Verbal noun – The measuring of all parameters is very importantour experiment.
Измерение всех параметров очень важно для нашего эксперимента.
I. Read and translate the sentences paying attention to “ing-forms” in different functions:
Mechanization had its beginnings in the Industrial Revolution.
Simple mechanical devices magnifying the power of human muscle were developed hundreds of years ago.
The mechanical clock representing a complex assembly with its own built-in power source was designed in 1335 in Europe.
Windmills with mechanisms for turning the sails were created during the Middle Ages.
Devising the steam engine by James Watt marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
Powered engines and machines obtaining their energy from mechanical, chemical, electrical and nuclear sources were being devised during two centuries.
The Jacquard automatic loom was capable of producing complex patterns in textiles by controlling the motions of many shuttles.
The concept of programming a machine was developed in the 19-th century.
Mechanical data processing was proposed by Charles Babbage in the 19-th century.
Read and translate the sentences paying attention to “ed-forms” in different functions:
1. Participle II – The steam engine, invented in the 18th century, was the main source of power.
Паровой двигатель, изобретенный в 18 веке, был основным источником энергии.
2. Passive Voice – The steam engine was invented in the 18th century.
Паровой двигатель был изобретен в 18 веке.
3. Past Simple – Watt invented his steam engine in the 18th century.
Ватт изобрел паровой двигатель в 18 веке.
The technology of automation has evolved from mechanization.
Many modern automated systems are derived from mechanical systems.
Thousands of years were required for the development of the wheel, the lever and the pulley.
More than 2,000 years ago the Chinese devised trip-hammers powered by flowing water.
The early Greeks experimented with motors powered by steam.
The steam engine represented a major advance in the development of powered machines.
When invented in 1801 the Jacquard loom demonstrated the concept of a programmable machine.
In the Jacquard loom the selection of the pattern in textiles was determined by a program contained in steel cards in which holes were punched.
Modern digital computer has been improved many times since Charles Babbage proposed his “analytical engine” programmed to perform arithmetic and data processing.
oral practice tasks
Agree or disagree to the following statements. Use the phrases:
I agree that …
I don’t think so.
Nothing of the kind.
Mechanization is the replacement of human power with mechanical power.
Prehistoric man couldn’t direct his own physical strength under the control of human intelligence.
Simple mechanical devices could magnify the power of human muscle.
Waterwheels, windmills and simple steam-driven devices required human power to operate.
The Jacquard loom was the first machine using punched cards.
Charles Babbage completed his “analytical engine“, the precursor of modern computer.
Divide the text into logical parts and entitle each part.
Answer the questions:
Is automation connected with mechanization?
What does mechanization refer to?
What were the first tools made of in prehistoric times?
What simple mechanical devices and machines helped people to magnify the power of human muscle?
What was the difference between the powered machines and the simple mechanical devices?
What kinds of powered engines and machines have been devised since the introduction of the Watt steam engine?
Why was the Jacquard loom an important development in automation?
Who developed the concept of programming a machine in the 19-th century?
What is the historical role of this device?
Do the tasks below:
Look through the scheme and complete it.
Comment on the scheme.
Speak on the development of:
a) mechanical devices;
b) powered automatic devices and engines;
c) programmable automatic machines.
Make a short report on the historical development of automation.
Translate the text in written form using a dictionary: Text 1b
From the history of mechanical engineering
The invention of the steam engine in the latter part of the 18th century, providing a key source of power for the Industrial Revolution, gave an enormous impetus to the development of machinery of all types. As a result, a new major classification of engineering dealing with tools and machines developed, receiving formal recognition in 1847 in the founding of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in Birmingham, Eng.
Mechanical engineering has evolved from the practice by the mechanic of an art based largely on trial and error to the application by the professional engineer of the scientific method in research, design, and production. The demand for increased efficiency is continually raising the quality of work expected from a mechanical engineer and requiring a higher degree of education and training.
Look through the text and do the tasks below: Development of machines for the production of goods
The high standard of living in the developed countries owes much to mechanical engineering. The mechanical engineer invents machines to produce goods and develops machine tools of increasing accuracy and complexity to build the machines.
The principal lines of development of machinery have been an increase in the speed of operation to obtain high rates of production, improvement in accuracy to obtain quality and economy in the product, and minimization of operating costs. These three requirements have led to the evolution of complex control systems.
The most successful production machinery is that in which the mechanical design of the machine is closely integrated with the control system. A modern transfer (conveyor) line for the manufacture of automobile engines is a good example of the mechanization of a complex series of manufacturing processes. Developments are in hand to automate production machinery further, using computers to store and process the vast amount of data required for manufacturing a variety of components with a small number of versatile machine tools.
Translate the title of the text.
Formulate the main idea of the text.
Choose the main information from every paragraph.
Make up the plan of the text.
Write down the annotation of the text in Russian.
UNIT 2 from the history of automation vocabulary
to accomplish – выполнять; завершать
to advance – продвигать(ся); развиваться
advanced – продвинутый; передовой
arm – механическая рука; рычаг; рукоятка
to attribute – приписывать, относить
body – корпyc
to coin – создавать новые слова (выражения)
to concern – касаться, иметь отношение
to be concerned with – быть связанным с …, иметь отношение к …
to define – определять, давать определение
definition – определение
to ensure – обеспечивать; гарантировать
to execute – выполнять; исполнять
execution – выполнение; исполнение
feedback – обратная связь
feedback control – управление с обратной связью; автоматическое регулирование с обратной связью
to govern – управлять; регулировать
self-governing – саморегулирующийся
human – человечный, гуманный
human being (=human) – человек
to instruct – обучать; инструктировать; информировать
instruction – обучение; инструкция; команда; программа