Программа дисциплины для преподавателя (Syllabus). Содержание дисциплины. Распределение часов по видам занятий Требования к курсу. Критерии и система оценивания знаний студентов

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Introduction to modals

can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will, would

Main points

  • Modals are always the first word in a verb group.

  • All modals except for ‘ought’ are followed by the base form of a verb.

  • ‘Ought’ is followed by a ‘to’-infinitive.

  • Modals have only one form.

  1. Modals are always the first word in a verb group. All modals except for'ought'are followed by the base form of a verb.

I must leave fairly soon.

I think it will look rather nice.

Things might have been so different.

People may be watching.

  1. ‘Ought’ is always followed by a ‘to’-infinitive.

She ought to go straight back to England.

Sam ought to have realised how dangerous it was.

You ought to be doing this.

  1. Modals have only one form, There is no ‘-s’ form for the third person singular of the present tense, and there are no ‘-ing’ or ‘-ed’ forms.

There’s nothing I can do about it.

I’m sure he can do it.

  1. Modals do not normally indicate the time when something happens. There are, however, a few exceptions.

‘Shall’ and ‘will’ often indicate a future event or situation.

I shall do what you suggested. He will not return for many hours.

‘Could’ is used as the past form of ‘can’ to express ability. ‘Would’ is used as the past form of ‘will’ to express the future.

When I was young, I could run for miles.

He remembered that he would see his mother the next day.

  1. In spoken English and informal written English, ‘shall’ and ‘will’ are shortened to ‘-’ll’ and ‘would’ to ‘-’d’, and added to a pronoun.

I’ll see you tomorrow.

I hope you’ll agree.

Posy said she’d love to stay.

‘Shall’, ‘will’, and ‘would’ are never shortened if they come at the end of a sentence.

Paul said he would come, and I hope he will.

In spoken English, you can also add ‘-’ll’ and ‘-’d’ to nouns.

My car’ll be outside.

The headmaster’d be furious.

Warning: Remember that ‘-d’ is also the short form of the auxiliary ‘had’.

I’d heard it many times.


  1. Your have to complete a sentence with could, was / were able to or couldn’t.

Example: My grandfather was very clever. He could (or was able to) speak five languages.

  1. He had hurt his leg, so he __________ walk very well.

  2. She wasn’t at home when I phone but I __________ contact her at her office.

  3. I look very carefully and I __________ see a figure in the distance.

  4. They didn’t have any tomatoes in the first shop I went to, but I __________ get some in the next shop.

  5. My grandmother loved music. She __________ play the piano very well.

  6. The boy fell into the river but fortunately we __________ rescue him.

  1. In this exercise you have to write sentences with could or could have.

Example: She doesn’t want to stay with Linda. But she could stay with Linda.

  1. He didn’t want to help us. But he

  2. He doesn’t want to help us. But

  3. They don’t want to lend us any money. But

  4. She didn’t want to have anything to eat.

  1. You have read a situation and write a sentence with must have or can’t have. Use the words in brackets.

Example: The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. (I must / be / asleep)

I must have been asleep.

  1. That dress you bought is very good quality. (It must / be / very expensive)

  2. I haven’t seen Jim for ages. (He must / go / away)

  3. I wonder where my umbrella is. (You must / leave / it on the train)

  4. Don passed the examination. He didn’t study very much for it. (The exam can’t / be / very difficult)

  5. She knew everything about our plans. (She must / listen / to our conversation)

  6. Denis did the opposite of what I asked him to do. (He can’t / understand / what I said)

  7. When I woke up this morning, the light was on. (I must / forget / to turn it off)

  8. I don’t understand how the accident happened. (The driver can’t / see / the red light)

  1. Rewrite these sentences using the modals given.

Example: Perhaps he fell. (may have) (might have)

He may have fallen.

He could have fallen.

  1. Perhaps they saw us. (could have) (might have)

  2. Perhaps he said that. I don’t remember. (might have) (could have)

  3. We’re lost. I think we’ve taken the wrong road. (must have)

  4. I wish you had seen it. It was wonderful. (should have)

  5. I ought to have known that would happen. (should have)

  6. Perhaps when I am fifty I won’t remember it. (will have forgotten)

  7. It was possible for me to prevent that, but I didn’t. (could have)

  8. You should have listened to her the first time. (ought to have)

  1. Make suitable sentences from the table below using can.

Learning English

Watching television

Visiting relatives

Winter sports

Going to the dentist

Meeting new people











hard work.


good fun.

Example: Travelling can often be boring.

  1. Complete these sentences using can, can’t, could or couldn’t.

Example: There was a woman with a big hat right in front of me. I couldn’t see a thing.

  1. I’m sorry, you’re in my light. I __________ see what I’m doing.

  2. It was a huge hall and we were at the back, so we __________ hear very well.

  3. When she screams, you __________ hear her all over the house.

  4. She was phoning all the way from Singapore, but I __________ hear her very clearly.

  5. __________ you hear me at the back?

  6. Put your hands up if you __________ hear me.

  1. Rewrite these suggestions starting with the words given.

Example: Let’s go to the theatre. / How about going to the theatre?

  1. We should get started as soon as possible. / It might be a good idea

  2. You could write and ask her yourself. / You might like to

  3. Why don’t we take a winter holiday for a change? / What about

  4. Couldn’t you just play at the end of the month? / You could

  5. We could take a week off in July. / Let’s

  6. You could ask Bill to help. / What

  7. Why don’t you ring and tell them you’re coming? / You

  8. We could borrow the equipment from Peter. / Couldn’t

  9. Why don’t we keep quiet about that? / It might

  1. Add comments to these sentences using I wish.

Example: I’m afraid your father can’t come. / I wish he could.

They always come late. / I wish they wouldn’t.

  1. He always complains about everything. /

  2. He never invites us round. /

  3. We can’t go on holiday this year. /

  4. She won’t listen to anything you say. /

  5. They can’t help out I’m afraid. /

  6. She never comes home at weekends. /

  1. Fill each gap with a correct modal verb.

  1. I really think you __________ see a doctor.

  2. Oh, look! Mr. Thomson __________ be here: there’s his car.

  3. Why did you carry that heavy box? You __________ hurt yourself!

  4. - Where are my keys?

  5. I suppose I __________ them in the car.

  6. She had to wait 5 minutes for traffic to stop, but in the end __________ to cross the road.

  7. I took my umbrella, but it didn’t rain, so I __________ taken it.

  8. Everyone understood. The teacher __________ to explain it again.

  9. He had an accident in his car. He __________ where he was going.

  10. - Did she do the exercise?

  11. No, she said she __________ understand it.

  12. He is very rich. He __________ work for a living.

  13. - Did you go to the concert?

  14. No. We __________ have gone but decided not to.

  15. - Did they find your house?

  16. Yes, it took them a long time but they __________ to find it.

  17. - Do you want me to wait for you?

  18. No, it’s okay. You __________ wait.

  19. His test is the best in class. He __________ (study) last night.

Unit 5 Gerunds and infinitives

The gerund

The gerund is used:
  1. after prepositions.

After leaving school, I went to university.

The firemen rescued the lady by breaking down the door.

Is anyone here good at sewing?

She was accused of killing her husband.

Examples of prepositions frequently followed by the gerund are:

before after without by about at to of
  1. after certain verbs.

I enjoy staying in hotels.

I avoid working at the weekend.

Some of the most common verbs which are followed by the gerund are:

admit avoid deny enjoy finish
  1. as the subject or object of a sentence.

Swimming is my favourite sport.

Smoking is bad for your health.

I find working in the garden very relaxing.
  1. after certain idiomatic expressions.

It's no use talking to him. He doesn't know anything.

This is an excellent book. It's worth buying.

Other idiomatic expressions are:

There's no point in (waiting all day).

It's no good (pretending that you understand).
  1. after certain verbs which are followed by the preposition to.

I'm looking forward to visiting you in July.

The infinitive

The infinitive is used:
  1. after certain verbs.

I can't afford to pay all my bills.

I hope to see you again soon.

Some of the most common verbs that are followed by the infinitive are:

agree appear attempt choose dare decide expect help learn manage need offer promise refuse seem

You should consult a good dictionary, for example the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English, to see which structures are possible after a particular verb.

  1. after certain verbs followed by an object.

He advised me to listen carefully.

They invited her to have lunch with them.

Some of the most common verbs that are normally used with an object and an infinitive are:

allow encourage force order persuade remind teach tell warn
  1. after certain verbs which sometimes take an object and sometimes don’t.

I want to find out the answer, (no object – ‘I find out.’)

I want you to find out the answer, (‘you’ as object – ‘You find out.’)

I'd like to help you.

I'd like you to give her a message.

NEVER I want that you . . .

I'd like that you . . .

Other common verbs are:

ask expect
  1. after certain adjectives.

It's difficult to explain how to get there. It's possible to walk there.
  1. after make and let.

She made me do the exercise again, (active – without ‘to’)

I was made to do the exercise again, (passive – with ‘to’)

He let me borrow the car. (active - without 'to')

I was allowed to borrow the car. (‘Let’, in the sense of ‘allow’, is not possible in the passive.)
  1. to express purpose.

I came here to team English.

I need more money to buy the things I want.
  1. after certain verbs followed by question words, e.g. what, where, who.

I didn't know what to do.

Can you tell me how to get there?

Show me where to put it.

Do you know where to buy it?

After these verbs and others with similar meanings, it is possible to use how, what, where, when, whether etc.

ask consider explain wonder find out understand
Forms of the infinitive

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