Программа дисциплины для преподавателя (Syllabus). Содержание дисциплины. Распределение часов по видам занятий Требования к курсу. Критерии и система оценивания знаний студентов



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The continuous infinitive


The continuous infinitive is formed with to be + present participle.

It expresses activities in progress.



I'd like to be lying in the sun right now.

He seemed to be having financial difficulties.
  1. The perfect infinitive


The perfect infinitive is formed with to have + past participle.

I'd like to have seen his face when you told him.

He seems to have forgotten about the appointment.
  1. The passive infinitive


The passive infinitive is formed with to be + past participle.

I'd like to be promoted to sales manager.

I asked to be informed as soon as there was any news.
Notes

The continuous, perfect, and passive infinitives can also be used with modal auxiliary verbs, but with these verbs to is omitted.

You should be working, not watching television.

She must have gone home already.

This report must be finished tonight.
The gerund or the infinitive after verbs?

Continue, start, begin

Either the gerund or the infinitive can be used.



It started to snow

snowing.

The infinitive is more common.

Love, like, prefer, hate

The meaning changes slightly, depending on whether the gerund or the infinitive is used.

Followed by the gerund, the statement is general.

I like swimming.

I love going to parties.

I hate driving in the dark.

Followed by the infinitive, the statement is more specific.



I like to read a book before going to sleep at night.

I hate to tell you, but I've lost your coat.

Remember, forget, stop, try

The meaning changes greatly depending on whether the gerund or the infinitive is used.

I remember being very unhappy as a teenager. (I know that I was very unhappy as a teenager.)

I'll never forget meeting you. (The day I met you is

very clear in my memory.)

The gerund refers to actions and states in the past, i.e. before the remembering, forgetting, etc. take place.

Remember to put some petrol in the car! (There isn’t much petrol in the car and it is important that you buy some.)

Don't forget to post the letter! (The letter is important, so you must remind yourself to post it.)

The infinitive refers to actions that must still be done, i.e. that happen after the remembering, forgetting, etc.



I stopped smoking years ago. (previous activity)

I stopped to pick up a hitchhiker. (This tells us why I stopped.)

We tried to put out the fire, but it was impossible.

I tried pouring on water, my husband tried covering it with a blanket and my son tried using the fire extinguisher, but in the end we had to call the fire brigade.

Try + infinitive is your goal; it is what you want to do.

Try + gerund is the method you use to achieve that goal.

Practice

  1. Open the brackets using a gerund.

  1. The windows are very dirty; they need (clean).

  2. It's very hot, so you don't need (bring) a coat.

  3. The house is old, and it badly wants (paint).

  4. The famous man didn't need (introduce) himself.

  5. The floor is covered with dust; it needs (sweep).

  6. The grass in the garden is very dry; it wants (water) badly.

  7. The planners didn't realise they would need (build) so many houses.

  8. This shirt is quite clean; it doesn't want (wash) yet.

  9. Her shoes have a hole in them; they want (mend).

  10. The room was in a terrible mess: it needed (tidy up).

  11. The baby's crying; I think he needs (feed).

  12. I know my hair wants (cut) but I never have time to go to the hairdresser's.

  13. John needed (cheer up) when he heard that he'd failed his exams.

  14. You should tidy the garden. - Yes, it needs (tidy). The roses want (water), the peaches want (pick), the grass wants (cut).


  1. Open the brackets using a suitable gerund

  1. Alter the accident, the injured man recovered consciousness in hospital. He remembered (cross) the road, but he didn't remember (knock down).

  2. I am still thirsty in spite of (drink) four cups of tea.

  3. This carpet always looks dirty, in spite of (sweep) every day.

  4. He didn't return the book he had borrowed after (promise) to do so.

  5. He got into the house by (climb) through a window, without (see) by anyone.

  6. I think he was foolish to buy a car before (learn) how to drive it.

  7. Peter is a much better chess-player than I am, and he was very surprised when I beat him yesterday for the first time. He isn't used to (beat).

  8. He went to bed at 9 p.m. in spite of (sleep) all the afternoon.

  9. He complained of (give) a very small room at the back of the hotel.

  10. The little girl isn't afraid of dogs in spite of (bite) twice.

  11. The little girl didn't go near the dog; she was afraid of (bite).

  12. The baby went to sleep a few minutes after (feed).

  13. The little girl never gets tired of (ask) her mother questions, but her mother often gets tired of (ask) so many questions.

  14. They lived in a small town for ten years and then moved without (make) friends with any of their neighbours.

  15. The little boy was punished for (tell) a lie by (send) to bed without his supper.

  16. Mary was chosen a year ago to act in the school play. She was very pleased at (choose).

  17. Jack doesn't like boxing. I don't know if he is afraid of (hurt) his opponent or of (hurt) himself.

  18. He was taken to hospital unconscious after the accident. He died in hospital without (recover) consciousness.

  19. I always treat people politely and I insist on (treat) politely.

  20. The boy was very hungry at eleven o'clock in spite of (eat) a big breakfast two hours earlier.

  21. She didn't get out of bed until ten o'clock in spite of (wake up) at seven.

  1. Complete the following sentences using a gerund.

Example: I/m good at mending things.

  1. I have difficulty in

  2. I’m very interested in

  3. I’m thinking of

  4. He saved up £1000 for a holiday by

  5. I sometimes worry about not

  6. Thank you for

  7. I’m looking forward to

  8. She left the room without

  9. I stayed in bed all day instead of



  1. Use your imagination to complete the following sentences.

Example: Working in a coal mine is dangerous, but well-paid.

  1. Finding a good job these days

  2. Living in a big city

  3. Taking regular exercise

  4. Travelling by air

  5. Being self-employed

  6. Learning a foreign language

  1. Complete the following sentences using infinitives.

Example: It is easy to find cheap places to eat.

  1. How do you do. Pleased to

  2. When you’re old, it can be difficult to

  3. I was surprised to

  4. If you haven’t got much money, it’s impossible to

  5. It can be expensive to

  6. When you travel abroad, it’s important to

  1. There are many expressions with go + gerund which are concerned with activities, sports, and physical recreation.

go dancing / go skiing / go running

Complete these sentences with go + a suitable gerund.

  1. I __________ yesterday, but I didn’t buy anything.

  2. I __________ by the river tomorrow, but I’m sure I won’t catch anything.

  3. Whenever there’s enough snow, we __________ every weekend.

  4. If I had enough money, I’d buy a yacht and __________ in the Mediterranean.

  5. We had a lovely holiday. We __________ every day. The water was lovely.

  1. Fill the gaps with one of the verbs which follow the passage, in either the gerund or infinitive form.

Jane’s a nurse, but she’s trying (1)__________ a new job. Although she enjoys (2)__________ people, nursing is not very well paid, and she cannot afford (3)__________ all her bills. She finds it impossible to live on such a low salary without (4)__________ her account at the bank. Her flat needs (5)__________ , and she would like (6)__________ a car. She managed (7)__________ enough last year for a short holiday by (8)__________ some extra money in her spare time, and this year, she’s hoping (9)___________ some friends in France. She has stopped (10)__________ to the theatre, which used to be one of her greatest pleasures. She’s thinking of (11)__________ in America, where she could earn a higher salary in a private hospital, but would prefer (12)__________ in this country if possible. She likes (13)__________ to see her parents whenever she wants to. A friend of hers went to America after (14)__________ university, but began (15)__________ her friends so badly that she had to come back.

earn

look after

miss

leave

pay

work

visit

save

buy

stay

find

redecorate

be able to

overdraw

go

  1. Gap filling

Complete the following story. The lines show the number of words missing. The words are not always gerunds or infinitives.

Example: He tried to find a job.

I’d like you to help me.

John Bradley was surprised (a) __________ __________ a letter waiting for him on his desk when he arrived at work. Before (b) __________ it, he hung up his coat and took out his glasses.

Dear Mr Bradley,’ he read, ‘We are sorry (c) __________ __________ you that your services are no longer required …’



He couldn’t believe it. After (d) __________ for the company for thirty years, he had been made redundant, one Monday morning, without (e) __________ warned in any way at all. There was no point (f) __________ __________ the letter. The ending was obvious. ‘Thank you for your loyalty and dedication over the years, and we hope you will enjoy (g)__________ more time to spend …’

The company wanted (h) __________ to go away quietly and enjoy his premature retirement. He was fifty-two. How could he (i) __________ __________ find another job at this age? He knew that firms were not interested (j) __________ __________ people over forty-five, let alone over fifty. Could he still afford (k) __________ __________ his daughters to their expensive school?

He sat back in his chair and looked out of the window, wondering (l) __________ __________ __________ next. He decided (m) __________ ___________ the office as soon as possible. He did not want (n) ___________ to see him while he left so depressed. So he put on his coat and for the last time closed the office door behind him. He stopped (o)__________ __________ ‘goodbye’ to the telephonist, whom he had known for years, and left the building.

Out in the street, it had begun (p) __________ __________ . He had forgotten (q)__________ __________ his umbrella that morning, so he turned up his overcoat collar and walked towards the station (r) __________ __________ his train home. He didn’t know what (s) __________ __________ to his wife. The thought of breaking the news to her (t)__________ __________ feel sick.

  1. Adjective + infinitive

Rewrite the sentences, using the adjectives in brackets.

Example: I heard you passed your driving test. (delighted)

I was delighted to hear that you passed your driving test.



  1. I learned that your aunt died. (sorry)

  2. He wanted to know where we had been. (anxious)

  3. She found that her husband was still alive. (amazed)

  4. I see you’re still smoking. (disappointed)

  5. He learned that he had nearly died. (shocked)

  1. Verbs + gerund or infinitive

Rewrite the sentences, using the verbs in brackets.

Example: ‘Come to the party. You’ll really enjoy it,’ he said to her. (persuade)

He persuaded her to go to the party.



  1. Yes, I did drive too fast through the town,’ she said. (admit)

  2. I’ll lend you some money, if you like,’ he said to me. (offer)

  3. If I were you, I’d accept the job,’ he said to his daughter. (advise)

  4. Why don’t you have a holiday in my country cottage?’ he said to us. (invite)

  5. You must pay for the damage you’ve done,’ she said. So I paid. (make)

  6. I haven’t smoked for three years,’ she said. (stop)

  7. We needed petrol, so we went to a service station. (stop)

  8. I didn’t buy food for dinner so we had to go out. (forget)

  9. But I fed the cat. (remember)

  10. I had piano lessons for years, but I was never very good. (try)

  1. To’ used instead of whole infinitive

Notice that the whole infinitive need not be repeated if it is understood.

Example: A You look terrible. You should have a holiday.

B I’m going to. (I’m going to have a holiday)

  1. A Why aren’t you going to work?

B (not want)

  1. A Can you come round for a meal tonight?

B (love) , but

  1. A I’m afraid I can’t take you to the airport after all. Sorry.

B (promise) But

  1. A Why can’t I take this book from the library?

B (not allow)

  1. A Why have you painted the wall black?

B (tell)

A No, I didn’t. I told you to paint it pale yellow.

  1. A Did you go out for a meal with him?

B (not ask)

  1. Talking’ versus ‘a talk’

Compare the following sentences.

Talking to someone about a problem usually helps to solve it.



I had a talk with Susan last night.

The gerund is used when we speak in general. To speak about one specific occasion, we can use some verbs as nouns in the structure have a + noun.

Write two sentences for each of the following words, one with a gerund and one with have a + noun.

Ride; drink; look; wash; quarrel; walk

  1. Noun + preposition

Many nouns are followed by prepositions. Put the correct preposition into each gap.

  1. I got a cheque __________ five hundred pounds in the post today.

  2. There has been a rise __________ the number of violent crimes.

  3. Have you seen this photo __________ my daughter? Isn’t she beautiful?

  4. The difference __________ you and me is that I don’t mind hard work.

  5. I can think of no reason __________ such strange behaviour.

  6. It took a long time to find a solution __________ the problem.

  7. Could you give me some information __________ train times?

  8. I’m having trouble __________ my car. It won’t start.

  9. She’s doing research __________ the causes of tooth decay.

  10. This is a machine __________ grinding coffee.

Unit 6 Reported speech

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