План изучения темы (перечень вопросов, обязательных к изучению):
The total area of the country.
The capital of the country.
Other cities in the USA.
The largest rivers.
The main political parties.
The US President now.
Краткое изложение теоретических вопросов:
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-boarder with Russia.
The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is more than 270 million.
If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains.
The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska.
America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA.
The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It's the world's leading producer of copper and oil and the world's second producer of iron ore and coal. Among the most important manufacturing industries are aircraft, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, armaments, furniture and paper.
Though mainly European and African in origin, Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations, including Chinese and native Americans.
The largest cities are: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San-Francisco, Washington and others.
The United States is a federal union of 50 states, each of which has its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, DC. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the judicial. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic, though there's hardly any difference between their political lines.
The first President of the USA George Washington, in whose honour the city was named, chose the place for the capital between the slates of Virginia and Maryland, on the Potomac River not far from the Atlantic Ocean. The City itself forms the District of Columbia abbreviated into D.C. The name of the capital is always used with this abbreviation not to be mixed up with another Washington, a state on the Pacific Coast.
Washington, D.C. is like no other city of the USA. New York is a centre of finance, shopping, fun; New Orlean deals with cotton; Chicago will sell you wheat and cattle. But Washington's only industry is government. The White House where the US President lives and works, the Capitol, the home of the US Congress and the Supreme Court all in Washington, D.C. About three-quarters of the population Washington, D.C. are wholly or indirectly involved in the administrative machine and the general process of government.
If you go sightseeing in Washington, D.C. your attention will be attracted not only by such famous buildings, as the Capitol, the White House, but also by the Washington Monument, the Lincoln Memorial, the Thomas Jefferson Memorial, the Smithsonian Institute, etc.
Washington, D.C. is not the largest city in the United States, but is one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the country, the f carefully planned capital in the world.
В английском языке существует два основных причастия:
Present Participle Past Participle или Participle I или Participle II
a.in the White House b.in District of Columbia c.in the Capitol
28.Where is Miami situated?
a.California b.Michigan c.Florida
29.What is the name of the ship, on which the first settlers arrived in America?
a.Queen Mary b.the Mayflower c.Discovery
30.Who was the author of the Declaration of Independence?
a.Thomas Jefferson b.John Kennedy c.Abraham Lincoln
Тема 1.4 Татарстан
Основные понятия и термины по теме:
a plain, a steppe, huge, trade, oil field, located, to develop, tower, ancient.
План изучения темы (перечень вопросов, обязательных к изучению):
Borders of Tatarstan.
The climate of Tatarstan.
Big cities of Tatarstan.
The symbol of Kazan.
The legends about Kazan.
Some historical facts.
Industry and agriculture.
Краткое изложение теоретических вопросов:
Geography of Tatarstan.
The Republic of Tatarstan is located at the centre of the Russian Federation. Tat. borders on the Republic of Bashkortostan, Chuvashia, Mari-El, Udmurtia and on the re of Russia: Samara, Ulianovsk, Kirov and Orenburg. Tatarstan has no borders with ft states.
Its area is more than 67 thousand square kilometres. It is as big as Ireland, Sri-LanL Lithuania. The territory of the republic is a plain. Jt lies in a forest and forest-steppe zone small hills on the right bank of the Volga.
The climate is continental with warm, sometimes hot summers and quite cold That is why agriculture is developed in Tatarstan: gardening, pig farming, bee farming;. farming and others.
Such wild animals as elks, bears, wolves, foxes, hares, squirrels, badgers, hedgehogs others live in the woods.
Tatarstan is rich in oil. The most well-known oil fields are Romashkino, Novo-Yelkhovskoye, Pervomaiskoye and Bondyuzhskoye. Tatarstan is also rich in brow-black coal, copper, gypsum, dolomites, clays, mineral waters and medical muds.
The republic has huge water resources. The Volga river system is of great importar. Russia and Tatarstan. The Volga, the Kama, the Vyatka and the Belaya rivers are the longest rivers, but there are also a lot of smaller rivers: the Zai, the Myosha, the Chererr. the Kazanka, etc and a lot of beautiful lakes, such as Lake Kaban, Swan Lake, Blue Lake.. I Lake and others.
The geographical position of Tatarstan is favorable for the development of industry,; and other socio-economic fields.
People in Tatarstan
1 The population of the Republic of Tatarstan is around 3.8 million people. 2.7 million people live in towns and cities. One million people live in the countryside. Tatarstan takes the eighth place in the Russian Federation (after Moscow, St. Petersburg, Bashkortostan, Moscow region, Krasnodar region, Rostov region, Sverdlovsk region). There are 19 cities and towns and more than 3000 settlements in Tatarstan. The largest cities are: Kazan, Naberezhnye Chelny, Nizhnekamsk, Almetyevsk, Zelenodolsk and Bugulma.
2 During the last few years the number of Azerbaijanians, Armenians, Tajiks, Uzbeks has increased. Most of them have organised their own cultural centres. For example, there are German and Jewish cultural clubs, the "Oguz" Azerbaijanian society, the Kazakh society, the Chuvash, Bashkir and Mari centres. There are also Tatar national parties and movements and a few Slavic societies in Tatarstan. It is a multicultural society and people of all nationalities live in peace and harmony.
3 Tatarstan is a multinational republic. People of 115 nationalities live there. The two main nationalities are the Tatars (52.9 per cent or more than 2 million people) and the Russians (39,5 per cent or 1,5 million people). The third place is taken by the Chuvashes - 3.4 % or 126,5 thousand people. There are some nationalities in Tatarstan, the population of which is over 10 thousand people. Among them are the Udmurts, Ukrainians, Mordvinians, Maris, Bashkirs and others.
The history of Kazan is really surprising and full of mysteries. There are many legends about the name of the city.One of the legends is very popular.
Bulgar Khan dropped a gold cauldron into the river. As "cauldron" in the Tatar language is "kazan", the river was called "Kazanka".Another says that the name of the city might come from the shape of the Kremlin hill, which looks like an upturned cauldron.
There are also legends about the symbol of the city. One of them says that a terrible two-headed winged snake lived in a large cave near the Kremlin hill. Every day it flew to Lake Kaban to drink water. The monster horrified the local people. They called it "Dzhilan" (which means "snake"). Later the snake was called Zilant and the place he lived in - the Zilantov Hill. At last Zilant was killed. The Kazan khan ordered to make its image the symbol of the city. Later it became the official coat of arms of Kazan.
The history of the Kazan Kremlin is also full of mysteries. Some legends are about the Suyumbike Tower. The tower was built on the ruins of the Kazan khan's palace.
Moscow tsar Ivan the Terrible knew about the beauty of the Tatar Queen. He wanted to marry her. He built a beautiful tower for her. Another legend says that the Kazan people called the tower after Suyumbike who said "no" to the Moscow tsar. It was very hard for Suyumbike to leave Kazan and become the Russian tsarina. She went to the top of the tower, looked around for the last time and threw herself down on the sharp stones...
As Kazan is an ancient city, its history is really full of mysteries and legends. Almost any place could tell us a lot about its history, dates and people.
Almetyevsk is a city in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, located on the left bank of the Zay River (Kama's tributary) 265 kilometers southeast of Kazan. Population is 146,309.
Almetyevsk is one of the youngest cities in the republic. It was founded as an oil-processing settlement and was granted town status in 1953.
Almetyevsk serves as the administrative center of Almetyevsky District; however, it is not administratively a part of it and is incorporated separately as a city of republic significance. Municipally, Almetyevsk is incorporated within Almetyevsky Municipal District as Almetyevsk Urban Settlement.
Almetyevsk is an important center of Russia's oil industry. The Druzhba pipeline starts in Almetyevsk. Pipelines to Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, and Subkhankulovo also start in this city. The city several oil equipment plants producing pipes, pumps and other oil tools.
Education The education system in Tatarstan is secular. The literacy rate for the total population is about 100%. Elementary and secondary education is compulsory (grades 1–10). Students must successfully pass graduation exams at the end of the 10th grade in order to continue their education in colleges and universities. Most schools are public along with a small number of parochial schools run by churches or mosques. The school year begins in September. Kazan Federal University is one of the major centers of higher education in Russia. There are several colleges, institutes and technical schools in Kazan and other cities of the republic.
Music Traditional (folk) Tatar music is based on the pentatonic scale. The first Tatar opera was staged in 1925. It was composed by Sultan Gabyashi in collaboration with Vasili Vinogradov. Farit Yarullin was the creator of the first Tatar ballet, Shurale. Modern Tatar music includes practically all existing musical genres. Tatarstan is a federal subject within Russia, where the largest ethnic group is the Tatars. Their traditional music is a mixture of Turkic and Finno-Ugric elements, reportedly bridging Mongolian and Hungarian music. In the mid-20th century, a number of Tatar composers became renowned, including Javdat Fayzi, Salih Saydash, Mansur Mozaffarov and Najip Jihanov. Many of the works of the Russian-Tatar composer Sofia Gubaidulina have been inspired by Tatar music. The largest center of Tatar national music is the Jalil Opera and Ballet Theatre named after Musa Jalil. The first Tatar opera, Sania, was staged in 1925. It was composed by Soltan Gabashi in collaboration with Vasili Vinogradov. Farit Yarullin was the creator of the first Tatar ballet, Shurale. Modern Tatar music includes practically all existing basic musical genres.
Modern, non-traditional music includes pop, rock, hip-hop music (for example, İttifaq), etc. The National Tatarstan Orchestra is the major symphony orchestra in Tatarstan.
Theater There are 16 professional and dozens of amateur theaters in Tatarstan performing plays in Tatar, Russian and other local languages. The Galiaskar Kamal Tatar Academic Theatre is the leading Tatar theater in Kazan, Russia. Named after the playwright Galiaskar Kamal, it was founded on December 22, 1906. The first known Tatar theatrical efforts were during the 19th century when Tatar amateur theater groups emerged in some cities and towns of Russia with sizable Tatar populations. The first published Tatar-language play was "Unhappy Girl" (1886) by Gabdrakhman Ilyasi (1856–1895), written perhaps under the influence of the first Turkish playwright İbrahim Jinasi and his play "Şair Evlenmesi" (A Poet's Marriage) which was published in 1860. Both plays deal with the problem of arranged marriages which were very common at that time. The first public performance of a Tatar play in modern times took place in 1906 and was organized by the group "Sayar" (The Traveller). "Sayar" eventually became the leading Tatar professional theater company. In 1939 it was renamed after the playwright Galiaskar Kamal. In 1987, the company moved to its current building on the shore of the lake Kaban.
The theater's current repertoire consists mostly of plays written by Tatar playwrights but includes many plays of Russian and foreign playwrights as well.
Татарстан. Промышленность. Казань. Города. Альметьевск. Транспорт. Достопримечательности. История. Культура. Традиции. Образование. Население. Известные люди страны.
Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Подготовка сообщения «Моя республика»;
Поиск информации в Интернете «Казань-столица»
Форма контроля самостоятельной работы:
- устный опрос;
- защита доклада
Вопросы для самоконтроля по теме:
Where is Tatarstan located?
Which republics and regions of Russia does Tatarstan border on?
How big is the republic?
What kind of climate does Tatarstan have?
What natural resources is Tatarstan rich in?
Do you know big cities of Tatarstan?
What is the symbol of Kazan?
What was the name of Tatar Queen?
Do you know the legends about Kazan? What are they about?
Say what you know about the Tatar Queen?
What city/town do you live?
Is it a big or small city?
In which place of Tatarstan is it located?
Найдите соответствующие переводы из второй колонки
1 граничить с a. continental climate
2 благоприятный для развития b. total area
3 континентальный климат c. huge water resources
4 нефтяные месторождения d. to run from north to south
Metric-imperial conversions: length (inch), area (foot-feet, yard), volume (gallon), weight (pound), temperature (C*- degrees Celsius, F*- degrees Fahrenheit).
Parts and equipment:spring, clip, hook, belt, nut, bolt, clamp, cog, gauge, fuse, drill, cable, hose, plug, socket, hard hat, bulb, lead, pipe, wheel.
Control Panel: There are 3 levers at the top on the left. There are 2 LCD displays on the right in the centre and there is a key pad at the bottom on the right. There is also a clock and an air vent and there are 6 sockets, 4 gauges, 3 knobs, and 5 switches.
Warning signs. Don’t enter. Be careful! Don’t trip. Wear a hard hat. Wash your hands. Don’t touch. Wear ear protection. Don’t bring cameras in here. Keep the aisle clear. Use the machine’s safety guard. Open the door with care. Keep cylinders secure and upright. Secure your hair. Don’t bring food or drink in here. Be careful! Slippery floor. Lift with care.
This(these)\that(those) (p.49) ‘Put these cables in those boxes. Seal the boxes with this tape and put them on that truck. Put those cables in these boxes. Then seal the boxes with that tape and put them on this truck.’ (Where are the green cables now? Where are the yellow cables now? What colour tape is on the boxes in front of the red truck?)
Robots The Robosaurus is a 12-metre-high entertainment robot. It’s designed to lift, crush, and burn cars. It weighs 26 tonnes and it's controlled by a human pilot who sits inside its head. 60 m flames come out of its nose, and its mouth opens and closes with a pressure of 140 kg/cm2. It can lift cars 15 m in the air and bite them in half with its 30 cm teeth. After shows, the robot becomes a trailer and it can travel by road to the next city. It can fold up to just 14 */2 metres long,
Describing features The Sedan de Ville has all the advanced engineering features of a 1959 Cadillac. It has
power brakes and electrically powered windows. Its radio has an electrically powered antenna. An electric switch locks and unlocks all the doors from the driver's seat. Driving is easy with its automatic transmission, and it has power steering, so parking is easy too. There’s a heater for cold weather and air-conditioning for hot weather. And the Sedan de Ville is powerful. It has an 8-cylinder, 390-in3 (6.4-litre) engine and a 21-gallon (80-litre) fuel tank. With the Sedan de Ville, you can save money on fuel because it has automatic
P.53 Unit 11 'I have to leave my car at home on Wednesdays because of the air pollution. The government restricts the number of cars in Mexico City. The last number of my licence plate is three. On Wednesdays 'threes' and 'fours' can't drive. And on Thursdays 'ones' and 'twos' can't drive, and so on. So on Wednesdays, I have to get a ride with a friend or take a bus.'
'The traffic in Bangkok is terrible. Some evenings I can't get home. I have to stay with a friend and sleep on their floor. We have a lot of tuk-tuks. They are open taxis for one or two people. There are no sides and the air is very dirty. I have to take my clothes to the cleaner's after the ride.'
P.61 Unit 13 The dental floss is for tying things together. It’s very strong and useful. The torch is for seeing at night and also for signalling. The mirror is for signaling in the day and the whistle is for making a noise. The tea bag is for a hot drink and also for putting on insect bites.
P.65 Unit 14
A:We replaced the bolts.
В :What was wrongwith them?
A :They were rusty.
A :We replaced the belt.
В :What was wrong with it?
A :It was worn.
You: Windscreen, four hundred euros’?
В :Yes, we replaced the windscreen.
You: What was wrong with it?
В :It was cracked.
You: ‘Front tyres, three hundred euros’?
В :Yes, we replaced the front tyres.
You: What was wrong with them?
В :They were ...
P.66 Unit 14 We signed the contract on 31 October and started work right away. We prepared the site in November and started work on the foundations in December. But then it snowed at Christmas and all work stopped. The snow melted at the end of January and we constructed the walls. We needed to work fast. In February, we added the second floor and erected the roof and then we installed the wiring and interior walls at the beginning of March. We worked seven days a week because the client wanted to move In on Monday, 18 March. We finished painting at 7 p.m. on 17 March and the client moved in on time. It was rush job, but we did it.
P.67 Unit 14
on + dates
in + months
at + special holidays
at + beginnings and ends
on + days of the week
at + clock times
P.71 Unit 15 Chinese is the world's top language. There are about six billion people in the world and eighteen per cent speak Chinese. Around six per cent speak English as a first language. But another six per cent speak English as a second language. And millions more can speak a little English. Roughly a quarter of the world’s population speaks some English. English is the international language of science and technology.
Instructions. Shut your computer down and unplug it. Disconnect the cables. Open the case and locate the sockets for the new memory. Put .i container under the sink to catch the water and use a wrench to loosen the nuts on the pipe. Position the memory chips over the sockets at a 45° angle. Next, remove the pipe and clear the blockage. Insert the chips by pressing down and forward. Wash it in hot water. Finally, reinstall the pipe and replace and tighten the nuts. Then close the case, reconnect the cables and reboot your computer.
Experimenting ‘The burning paper heats the air inside the bottle. The air contracts and falls and some air gets out past the egg. The burning paper consumes all the oxygen inside the bottle and the fire goes out Then the air inside the bottle cools down and expands. That raises the air pressure inside the bottle. And that means the air pressure inside the bottle is higher than the air pressure outside the bottle. That’s why the egg falls into the bottle.’
Maintenance checklist Delete old files, like .tmp and .zip files. Empty the Recycle Bin.
Check the hard drive for errors. Run 'Defrag' and 'Disk Cleanup'
Download any new service packs. Update the drivers. Do a back-up.
Write decimal points as a point (.), not a comma (,): 3.5
After the point say numbers separately: 1.25-one point two five.
Before the point say numbers together: 25.25-twenty-/five point two five.
Before the point 0 is zero or nought (not oh): 0.3- zero point three or nought point three.
After the point, 0 is zerooroh:0.03 zero point zero three or zero point oh three.
Интернациональные слова. Spelling. Числительные. Единицы измерения. Оборудование. Детали. Панель управления. Материалы. Форма. Роботы. Инструменты и приборы. Предупреждающие знаки. Расположение предметов. Решение проблем. Транспортная инфраструктура. Ремонт незначительных поломок. Комплект для выживания. Различные повреждения приборов. Космический проект. Аптечка. Инструкции направления. Инструкции по ремонту. Монтаж и ремонт. Изобретения. Правила ТБ. Закрепление грамматического материала
Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Решение вариативных упражнений по Workbook учебного пособия «Tech Talk» V.Hollet (№ 6-5; 8-8; 8,9-11; 7-14; 11-18; 9-21; 8-24; 8-28; 8-31; 7-34; 7-37; 10-41; 8-44; 9-48; 8-51)
Форма контроля самостоятельной работы:
- проверка рабочих тетрадей
Вопросы для самоконтроля по теме:
What can you do in English? Can you: name these colours? say the letters of the English alphabet? spell your company’s name? say your email address? say the days of the week? say the months of the year? tell the time? say these decimal numbers: 5.6 2.98 29.15 0.7 4.03?
What electronic devices do you have with you now? For example: a mobile phone, a laptop computer, a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant), a watch, a pager, a cassette recorder, a MP3 player.
Which instructions are for installing more computer memory? Which instructions are for unblocking a pipe?
What can robots do (climb up and down stairs; turn left, right, and around;
raise and lower his arms; 105 degrees; operate light switches; open and close doors;
What’s a torch for? What’s an umbrella for? What’s switch for? What’s a plastic bag for?
What’s a clock for? What’s a camera for?
Раздел 3. Моя будущая профессия