Печатается по решению кафедры. Протокол №3 от 19.10.2011г.
Авторы - составители: Храброва В.Е. , Еремеев А.И.
Рецензенты: Еремин Ю.В. – заведующий кафедрой английского языка гуманитарных факультетов РГПУ им. А.И. Герцена, профессор, д.п.н.;
Щербакова И.О. – заместитель заведующего кафедрой иностранных языков НИУ ВШЭ ( СПб), доцент, к.п.н.
Данное пособие представляет собой сборник 20 основных текстов с упражнениями . Тексты заимствованы из двух источников : журнала The Economist и газеты The Financial Times. Каждая из 20 частей пособия включает 8 заданий . Задание 1 содержит два проблемных вопроса по подготовке к чтению основного текста . Задание 2 представляет собой чтение текста , за которым следуют 7 вопросов. 3 и 4 упражнения помогают студентам расширить словарный запас и учат пользоваться словарем . Целью 5 упражнения является развитие навыков устной речи . Упражнение 6 в каждой части пособия дает пример развернутого и логичного описания шести слов , взятых из основного текста , что дает студентам образец того , как надо делать предыдущее задание. Задание 7 является творческим , при выполнении которого необходимо обратиться к дополнительным источникам информации . Задание 8 связано по тематике с основным текстом . Студентам предлагается изложить текст из русских газет на английском языке .
Тематика тестов пособия касается злободневных вопросов мировой экономики . Акцент сделан не только на глобальные экономические вопросы , но прежде всего на экономику отдельных стран : Индии , Китая , Монголии , Японии , Мексики , США , развивающихся стран , Великобритании , Греции и других стран еврозоны .
Text 1. Identifying a billion Indians 3 -6
Text 2. Silicon Valley comes to Davos 6-10
Text 3. China pharma: Accumulate to consolidate 10-14
Text 4..Mexico cars: Winners and losers 14-17
Text 5. Britain's stuttering economy 17-21
Text 6. Mongolia presses on key mine project 21-24
Text 7. Emerging markets try to steady currencies 25-28
Text 8. Tokyo tackles taxation for tsunami reconstruction 28-31
Text 9. Economics' most influential people 32-35
Text 10. Marks & Spencer crosses the Channel, again 35-38
Text 11. Biggest banks face capital clampdown 39-42
Text 12. Siemens chief warns on US skills shortage 42-46
Text 13. US budget talks hit tense stage 46-50
Text 14. Eurozone delays €12bn loan for Greece 50-53
Text 15. Against the odds, the euro will scrape through 53-57
Text 16. UN urges rich countries to share refugee burden 57-60
Text 17. Boeing calls time on duopoly with Airbus 61-64
Text 18. Google to digitise British Library collection 65-68
Text 19. Gold slides as investors scramble for cash 68-73
Text 20. Does the sclerotic banking system explain the sterling riddle ? 73 -77
Text 1. Identifying a billion Indians
1. Give your views of the ideas before reading the Text :
а) Reliable identity numbers could create many opportunities for business .
b) Can you account for the fact that India is supposed to be one of the fastest growing economies in the world ?
2. Read the Text and answer the questions below :
In a small village north-west of Bangalore, peasants queue for identities. Each man fills in a form with his name and rough date of birth, or gets someone who can read to do it for him. He places his fingertips on one scanner and stares at another. A photograph of his face is snapped. These images are uploaded to a computer. Within a few weeks he will have an identity number.
The Indian government is trying to give all 1.2 billion Indians something like an American Social Security number, but more secure. Because each “universal identity number” (UID) will be tied to biometric markers, it will prove beyond reasonable doubt that anyone who has one is who he says he is. In a country where hundreds of millions of people lack documents, addresses or even surnames, this will be rather useful. It should also boost a wide range of businesses.
So far the process has gone smoothly. More than 1m people have been enrolled since October, and the pace is accelerating. It needs to: 1m is less than 0.1% of the population. The scheme presents difficulties both for the people in charge, many of whom were recruited from software firms, and for the private contractors who are doing much of the work. How do you ensure that the data are accurate? How do you build a robust database containing biometric information about more people than any other? How do you deal with peasants whose fingerprints are unreadable after years of manual work? (Adding moisture to their fingertips helps.)
When an individual is enrolled, his biometric data must be compared with everyone else’s to ensure there is no duplication. Sometimes the workers who show people how to place their fingers on the scanner accidentally scan their own fingerprints. As enrolments hit a peak of about 1m a day, the system will need to carry out a staggering 14 billion matches per second.
This mighty task has been awarded to private contractors in an unusual way. There are three vendors: Accenture and L-1 Identity Solutions of America, plus Morpho of France. The firm that does the fastest, most accurate job gets 50% of the work; the others get 30% or 20%. This allocation is frequently reassessed, so if the second-best firm starts doing better, it picks up some work from the leading firm. This keeps everyone sharp.
The government’s aim is to improve services and reduce corruption. A shocking two-thirds of the subsidised grain that the government allocates to the poor is either stolen or adulterated. When middlemen say they have delivered so many bags of rice to so many thousands of peasants, there is no way to tell if they are lying. But if each peasant has to scan her irises every time she picks up her ration, it will be harder to scam the system. Similar controls could be used to curb voter fraud.
A reliable way of identifying people would also smooth financial transactions. Some 42m poor households toil for a government scheme that guarantees them up to 100 days of work at the minimum wage each year. The money is welcome; the trek to the bank to collect it is not. Ram, a peasant in Madhya Pradesh, walks 6km (4 miles) to the bus stop, travels 14km clinging to the roof of a bus, waits two hours in the bank and then does it all again in reverse. The trip swallows a fifth of his earnings, in the form of fares and the opportunity cost of missing a day’s work.
The identity scheme could help Ram avoid this hassle. The plan is to supply scanners to village shops and link them to distant banks via mobile phones. The man could walk in, scan his fingers and authorise the bank to transfer his money to the shopkeeper’s bank account. The shopkeeper could then advance Ram the money, minus a small fee.
Small shopkeepers are salivating. B.C. Manjunath, who runs a tiny kirana store selling boiled sweets, soap and single eggs, sees two ways to profit. As well as charging fees, he would benefit from customers with more cash in their pockets. At present he has little choice but to extend credit. Customers owe Mr Manjunath’s family 20,000 rupees ($440), interest free.
Because the UID system is an open platform, businesses will be able to graft inventive applications onto it. Hospitals could match medical records with patients who are far from home. This would help make records portable, says Shivinder Singh, the managing director of Fortis Healthcare, a chain of private hospitals. Insurance would become easier to provide. Barely one in 100 Indians has health insurance, not least because identities are so hard to verify. Indeed, all kinds of insurance would be much cheaper if companies had a reliable way of discovering, for example, that a man applying for car insurance in Mumbai had been convicted of drink-driving in Delhi.
Microfinance should start to work better, too. It enjoyed a huge boom in recent years, followed by a bust. Many poor people found they could borrow more than they could ever hope to repay by going to several lenders. As a result, some microfinance outfits collapsed. The UID scheme ought to allow for greater control over such small loans.
A secure identity system will also help schools, reckons Suhas Gopinath, the boss of Globals, a firm that helps schools handle information. It would make it easier to monitor each student’s progress, he says. And if a student migrates to another state, his school records could move with him.
Even with strict controls for privacy, the UID scheme will help companies understand more about the population they serve. “It would be fantastic for just about any business,” predicts Mr Singh. There is a caveat, of course: the scheme must work. Britain has put off plans for biometric identity cards partly because of worries about soaring costs and technical snafus. Building and running India’s database is a challenge as gargantuan as India itself.
What is implied by UID ?
Why is UID introduced in India?
In your opinion : are ordinary Indians interested in the secure identity system ?
What does the procedure of implementing the system present ?
What do you suppose can make one database offer many possibilities for the country ?
How will different strata of society in India benefit from the UID scheme ?
Has the author outlined any disadvantages of the new system ?
3. Find the English matches for the following Russian words :
5. Explain in your own words the meaning of the collocations given below :
-graft inventive applications
- smooth financial transactions
- soaring costs
6. Find the words corresponding to the definitions given below :
1. not exact; not including all details ; approximate
2. feeling happy and confident about yourself or a particular situation
3. make sure that something happens or is definite
4. happening by chance; not planned
5. think again about something to decide if you need to change your opinion of it
6. make food or drink less pure by adding another substance to it
7. Write an essay about India’s socio-economic challenges . Make use of newspaper articles.
8. Render the following text . Sum all the main points of an article, providing sufficient detail to support the main ideas. The summary has to cover the main points clearly in a limited space and must also follow an organized structure.