«КАЗАНСКИЙ АВТОТРАНСПОРТНЫЙ ТЕХНИКУМ ИМ. А.П. ОБЫДЕННОВА»
«TRANSPORTATION» Для специальности 23.02.01.
«Организация перевозок и управление на транспорте»
Авторы-составители: СИТДИКОВА Н.Г.
Пособие предназначено для студентов 3 - 4 курсов специальности 23.02.01. «Организация перевозок и управление на транспорте».
В пособие включены аутентичные тексты и упражнения, направленные на изучение лексических и грамматических явлений, характерных для технической литературы, а также упражнения, направленные на поиск нужной информации в тексте, развитие диалогичной/монологической речи по специальности.
Целью пособия является формирование навыков и умений перевода текстов профессиональной направленности, а также развитие навыков устной речи на профессиональные темы.
Пособие состоит из 10 разделов (Units). Материал пособия охватывают темы: история развития транспорта, различные виды транспорта, перевозки, дорожные пробки, работа автотранспортного предприятия, экологические проблемы, логистика, информационные технологии в транспорте.
Разделы представляет собой комплекс текстов с вопросами для последующего обсуждения, коммуникативно-направленных упражнений, а также иллюстраций и таблиц, которые помогут овладеть профессиональной лексикой. Послетекстовые упражнения способствуют развитию коммуникативной компетенции и предназначены для реализации полученных знаний в будущей профессиональной деятельности.
Пособие рекомендовано использовать для работы в аудитории, также даны задания для самостоятельной внеаудиторной работы студентов.
UNIT 1. HISTORY OF TRANSPORT…………………………………………..….4
UNIT 2. ROAD HAULAGE……………………………………………………..11
UNIT 3. PROBLEMS OF CONGESTION………………………………………...15
UNIT 4. RUSH HOURS……………………………………………………..............19
UNIT 5. ECONOMY OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION……………………….....25
6. UNIT 6. ENVIRONMENMENTAL PROBLEMS …………………………….….29
UNIT 7. URBAN TRANSPORT ……………………………………………………34
UNIT 8. TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS…………………………….41
9. UNIT 9. PERFORMANCE OF MOTOR TRANSPORT DEPOTS ……………..46
10. UNIT 10. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TRANSPORT……………….50
UNIT 1 HISTORY OF TRANSPORT Ex. 1. Mind the new words.
To carry – перевозить traffic – движение, транспорт,
Goods – товары to establish – учреждать, создавать
Vehicle – транспортное средство public – общественный
To include – включать stage-coach – почтовая карета
Быстрый – быстрый рост, быстрый рост транспорта. Ex. 3. Read and translate the text
History of Land Transport
The word “transport” means to carry people or goods from place to place. It is also used for the vehicles that carry people or goods – for example, motor transport includes buses, lorries, motor coaches and motor cars. The American word for the same thing is transportation, and the remark “transportation is civilization” was made by an American, the motor-car manufacturer Henry Ford.
The history of transport is divided into two stages.
The first stage is that in which all forms of transport depended directly on the power of men or animals or on natural forces such as winds and currents.
The second stage began with the development of the steam engine, which was followed by the electric motor and the internal combustion engine as the main sources of power for transport.
The invention of the wheel also gave an advance in land transport. The wheel at once led to the development of two-wheeled carts and four-wheeled wagons and carriages, but before these could be used for carrying goods over long distances, a system of roads was necessary.
These roads had to be wide enough to take a cart and paved. In Britain, and also over much Europe, the first long-distance paved roads were made by the Romans, chiefly so that troops could be marched without delay from place to place. The roads made it possible to use wheeled traffic. However, when the Roman Empire collapsed, the roads gradually got into a very bad state.
In the 17th century national road transport systems were formally established. The French, through central government efforts, built their Royal Roads system over which a public transport service of stage-coaches carrying passengers and mail was established. The British, mainly through private efforts, built a 32,000 km system of turnpikes where tolls have to be paid for road usage. A similar initiative was undertaken in the USA in the 19th century and be the early 20th century, a network of 3 million km of roads, most unpaved, was in operation.
Technological innovations in road engineering permitted the construction of reliable and low cost hard surface roads.
Road development accelerated in the first half of the 20th century. The Germans were the first to build the modern highway (autobahn) in 1932.
The post World War Two era represented a period of rapid expansion of road transport networks worldwide. By the 1970s, every modern nation has constructed a national highway system.
Ex. 4. Answer the questions after the text.
What does the word “transport” mean?
What are the stages of the history of transport?
What did the invention of the wheel bring?
Where were the first paved roads made?
When were national road transport system established?
When did road development accelerate?
Ex. 5. Find the equivalents to the following words in the text.
means of transport
to split up
Ex. 6. Work in pairs. Make up questions using these word combinations.
motor transport, the development of the steam engine, national road transport systems, technological innovations.
The history of the automobile begins as early as 1769, with the c
reation of steam engined automobiles capable of human transport. But there was a great need for a more efficient engine than the steam engine, for one without a huge boiler, an engine that could quickly be started and stopped. This problem was solved by the invention of the internal combustion engine.
In1806, the first cars powered by an internal combustion engine running on
fuel gas appeared, which led to the introduction in 1885 of the modern
gasoline- or petrol-fueled internal combustion engine. Since then motor transport began to spread very rapidly. But the person who was the first to make it really popular was Henry Ford, an American manufacturer who introduced the first cheap motor car, the famous Ford Model “T”.
The rapid development of the ICE led to its use in the farm tractors, thereby creating a revolution in agriculture. The use of motor vehicles for carrying heavy loads developed more slowly until 1930s when diesel-engined lorries became general.
Buses were started in Paris in 1820. In 1828 they were introduced in London by George Shillibeer, a coach builder who used the French name “Omnibus” which was obtained from the Latin word meaning “for all”. His omnibuses were driven by three horses and had seats for 22 passengers. Then in the 20th century reliable petrol engines became available, and by 1912 the new motor buses were fast replacing horse-driven buses.
Trams were introduced in the middle of the 19th century. The idea was that, as the rails were smoother than the roads, less effort was needed to pull a tram than a bus. The first trams were horse drawn but the later trams were almost all driven by electricity. The electric motor driving the tram was usually with electric current from the overhead wires. Such wires are also used by trolley-buses, which run on rubber tyres and do not need rails.
London’s first underground railway of the “Tube” type was opened in 1863. The Moscow underground was opened in 1935. Kazan’s underground which is considered to be the youngest and one of the shortest was opened in 2005.
Cars powered by electric power briefly appeared at the turn of the 20th century, but largely disappeared from use until the turn of the 21st century. The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion during that time.
Ex. 9. Match the facts with the following years from the text about the development of land transport.
1769, 1806, 1820, 1863, 1885, 1912, 1935, 2005.
Ex. 10. Match the words and word combinations with similar meaning
1.creation of engine
e) Cars driven
f) Invention of motor
g) Come out
h) Become popular
i) Grow quickly
Ex. 11. Complete these sentences.
This problem was solved by the invention of the _____________.
Then in the 20th century reliable _____________ became available.
Another form of transport used in London, Berlin, Paris, Moscow and other crowded cities is the ______________.
London’s first underground of __________ type was opened in 1863.
Cars powered by ____________ briefly appeared at the turn of the 20th
Ex. 12. Make a report about inventors of motor transport. Include the following information.
The factors which led to the invention.
Public attitude to the invention.
Consequences of the invention.
Ex.13. Mind the words
To propose – предлагать High density – высокая плотность
Layout – расположение Improvement – улучшение
To cause – вызывать, быть причиной Transport mode – вид транспорта
To gather – собираться To broaden – расширять
Mutual – взаимный Residential - жилой
Urban – городской road congestion – затор на дороге
Rural – сельский to install – устанавливать
To remain – оставаться acceptable – приемлемый
To enlarge – увеличивать existing – существующий
Distribution – распределение interchange – развязка
Movement – движение Ex. 14. Translate word combinations
To propose a project; layout of the city, favourable layout of the city; to cause the growth of population; to gather for mutual protection; urban population, urban transport; rural population; to remain the same; to enlarge the movement; distribution of urban population, movement of population, high density center; improvement of situation, improvement of urban transport; major transport mode; to broaden the territory; residential areas; road congestion leads to, to cause road congestion; acceptable transport mode; existing transport system; to build road junctions.
Ex.15. Read and translate the text.
City and City Transport
The problem of urban transportation has become very important. A large number of new transport systems is known to have been proposed in the past decade or so.
But before describing the new systems and their applications it is necessary to look back briefly to see how cities got their present layout, and what are the factors that have caused the present problems of urban transport.
The first factor is the growth of population. The cities developed as a rule because of the need for people to gather for mutual protection, for commerce and for education. In England since 1801 the rural population remained almost constant, while urban population has grown by than twenty times. The population growth has greatly enlarged the movement of passengers in big cities.
The second factor is the changing distribution of population within cities. There has been a steady movement of population from the high density center to the lower density suburbs. The increase and improvements of transport are believed to be the main reasons for this movement.
Walking was the major transport mode both in and out of cities until the end of the 18th century. The cost of a horse in terms of a laborer’s wages was about three times that of a mass produced motor car today.
This lack of cheap transport led to the development of very high density building within the city center. The situation was changed with the introduction of horse buses and urban railways in the middle of the 19th century, followed by the horse trams and electric trams towards the end of that century.
The introduction of the motor car and motor bus in the 1920s allowed the residential areas along the railways lines to broaden and the increase of car ownership since about 1950 has led to both residential and industrial development in open areas around cities. This growth leads to longer journeys to work, school, or shopping, and more travel per day, even without population growth.
The third factor is the growth of private cars. To own a car had become not only pleasant, but in many cases simply necessary. However, car ownership leads to road congestion. The congestion is partly a result of the rush-hours during travel to and from work and school.
Of course, transport is only a service industry, and must be coordinated with developments in communications and with planning. The first thing to do is to develop transport systems which are cheaper to install, cheaper to operate and aesthetically more acceptable than some of the existing ones.
To solve the problem of traffic jams in cities the underground railways are built, local authorities develop the road system building network of interchanges trying to control road traffic.
Ex.16. Answer the questions.
What transport problem has become very important?
What are the factors that have led to the present day problems of urban transport?
What was the major transport mode until the end of the 18th century?
What led to the development of very high density building within the city center?
What kinds of changes were made in the middle of the 19th century?
What does car ownership lead to?
What must transport be coordinated with?
What is made to solve the problem of traffic jams?
Ex. 17. Work in groups. Discuss ways of solving the problem of congestion in Kazan. Use the following word combinations.
I agree/disagree, from my point of view, on the one hand …, on the other hand…, to tell the truth, on the contrary …. UNIT 2 ROAD HAULAGE Ex. 1. Mind the new words and expressions