принятие на себя обязательств другого перевозчика без увеличения стоимости доставки
плотность транспортного потока
расчетная [калькуляционная] единица
условия дальности перевозки
Ех. 5.Find in the textinternational words and translate them into Russian.
x. 6. Read the text and say what you have learnt about European roads.
Day and night, hundreds of thousands of lorries travel across Europe's main arteries. This mode
of transport has two major and obvious advan tages: its flexibility and its ability to carry goods and passengers door-to- door. This is the reason why European companies clearly prefer the road network to distribute their products throughout the Union.
Road transport is clearly an important factor underpinning the development of the European internal market. The more this market opens up and becomes unified, the more the sector benefits in terms of its own growth.
Every operator in the sector has the right to settle and freely exercise his activities throughout the Union. The road haulage sector is the victim of its own success. Its steady growth – together, of course, with that of car traffic – contributes to the increasingly frequent saturation of the capacity of Europe's roads. The need to share infrastructure with other road users also raises the important question of road safety. Another consequence is the impact on the environment, in particular in connection with greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. The central element of this problem is the ever growing number of vehicles operating in European road transport, now over 20 million.
The sector of passenger transport by road shares with the road haulage sector a number of identical rights and obligations: freedom of establishment, access to the market, compliance with conditions of competition, vehicle safety and safe driving. Road transport plays a direct role in developing the European internal market. Moreover road transport also has to meet challenges connected with its success: network safety and saturation impact on the environment.
Ex. 7. Answer the following questions.
What are the major advantages of lorries?
What problems does the road sector have?
What challenges does road transport have to meet?
Ex. 8. Substitute the words in Russian with their appropriate equivalents in English.
The steady growth of (сектора дорожных перевозок) contributes to the (насыщенность) of the capacity of Europe's roads.2. Many EU (правила) applying to (грузовики) also concern buses and (пассажирские автобусы). 3. The ever-growing number of (транспортные средства) operating in European road transport, now over 20 million, is a contributing factor of the (воздействие) on the (окружающая среда), in particular in connection with (парниковый) gas (выбросы) and climate (изменение). 4. The sector of (пассажирский транспорт) by road shares with the road (перевозки) sector a number of identical (права и обязательства): (доступ) to the market, (безопасность транспортного средства) and (безопасное вождение). 5. The need to (делить) infrastructure with other road (пользователи) raises the important question of (дорожная безопасность).
Ex. 11. Translate the followingsentences into Russian. Mind the use of the modal verbs.
1. Quality assurance must be built into the system, deviations must be defected and corrected before the consignee recognizes the problem, not afterwards. 2. The transport operator has to be able to predict and keep to time windows at both pick-up and delivery locations. 3. The transport market may be characterized as a highly regulated market with primitive mechanisms to match supply and demand. 4. There is little information on how road users might respond to a complex structure of charges and hence how effective a complex system might be. 5. In order to know where you need to get to, you must know where you were presently situated. 6.The shift from private car to public transport can be encouraged by a more efficient and comfortable transport system. 7. The role of the taxi in avoiding traffic jams should and could be enlarged.
Ex. 12. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the use the passive voice.
1. Changes in the supply of transport services are affected by human technologies, customer demand and external cost. 2. Many characteristics of transport demand are influenced by a multitude of simultaneously occurring tendencies. 3. In Helsinki the road dust problem is mainly blamed on winter sanding and has been addressed since the 1980s. 4. Transport and transporters are influenced by the changes in political and public opinion, by the rapid development o f telecommunications and so on. 5. The capacity of existing European waterways is not fully utilized. 6. The need for sustainable mobility and alternative land use policies has recently been recognized. 7. For some agro industries the cost of the raw material waiting at the reception area is affected by the deterioration of the perishable products transported by trucks.
Ex. 13. Give the main points of the text in 4-7 sentences. Use the following clichés:
The text deals with.... The author points out that... . It should be remembered that... The author comes to the conclusion that... .
UNIT 3 PROBLEMS OF CONGESTION
Ex. 1. Mind the new words and expressions
bus occupancy – загруженность (вместимость) автобуса
clamp (v, n)– фиксировать, зажим
flatfee –фиксированная оплата
fine – штраф, плата
fossil fuel – ископаемое топливо
enforcement — принудительное применение закона
netrevenue – чистый годовой доход
persistent — стойкий, постоянный, продолжительный
ridership – пассажирские перевозки
surveillance — наблюдение
to track – следить, прослеживать
transponder– ретранслятор, радиомаяк
Ex. 2. Match the word with the appropriate definition.
route, congestion charging, cost, to levy, profit, congestion, revenue
1. the state of being overcrowded, especially with traffic or people.
2. a way of reducing traffic in city centers by charging drivers money to enter.
3. the price paid or required for acquiring, producing, or maintaining something, usually measured in money, time, or energy.
4. to say officially that people must pay a tax or charge.
5. excess of revenues over outlays and expenses in a business enterprise over a given period of time, usually a year.
6. money that a business or organization receives over a period of time, especially from selling goods or services.
7. a way between two places that buses, planes, ships, etc. regularly travel.
Ex. 3. Match the words with the similar meaning.
Ex. 4. Give the Russian equivalents of the following expressions.
1. congestion charge
2. journey time reliability
3. efficiency of freight distribution
4. during working hours
5. flat once-a-day fee
6. an electronic road pricing system
7. road-side transponders or on board units
8. video-surveillance cameras
9. automatic number plate recognition technology
10. noise level
11. the charged area
12. persistent non-players
13. displaced car users
14. road traffic emissions
15. fossil fuel consumption 16. inner ring road
17. (average) bus occupancy
18. traffic flow
Ex. 5. Choose the right variant for each word combination. Mind the use of the word "charges".
Ex. 6. Look through the text and find the derivatives from the following verbs:to rely, to distribute, to surveil, to enforce, to play, to indicate, to signify, to improve, to occupy.
Ex. 7. Read the text for more information about technology described.
London’s Congestion Charge was introduced on 17 February 2003 with the aims of reducing congestion, improving bus services, improving journey time reliability and improving the efficiency of freight distribution and other services. D
rivers entering the centre of the city during working hours must pay a flat, once-a-day fee. It is an electronic road pricing system which operates without road-side transponders or on-board units. Vehicles are tracked entering the charged area by video-surveillance cameras, using automatic number plate recognition technology.
This technology is employed for enforcement in urban and truck charging systems. Drivers entering the charged area between 7 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. Monday to Friday must pay 5 pounds (7 Euro), in advance or before the end of the day. Over half a million payments are made each week. Payments may be made by Internet, mobile phone SMS messages or at some petrol stations and shops. On payment, the vehicle’s registration number is entered onto a computerized list and cross-checked against the video camera records. Fines are sent out to drivers of cars entering the zone without payment. Persistent non-payers are identified and their vehicles clamped, or in a few extreme cases their vehicles have been crushed.
The impacts of the system have been carefully monitored. The main results reported after the first complete year of operation are as follows, and closely in line with the results of the modeling on which the system was designed:
• Congestion within the zone has reduced by 30%, and the volume of traffic within the zone has reduced by 15%;
• Public transport is successfully accommodating displaced car users;
• Road traffic emissions and fossil fuel consumption in the zone have been reduced.
Generally the congestion charge has been accepted by the public and by business. The success of the charge has resulted in the Mayor proposing to extend the charged area to cover all of central London. The charging system and level of charge would stay the same and be applied to a single zone roughly double the size of the present charging area.
Ex. 8. Answer the following questions. 1. Why was London’s Congestion Charge introduced?
2. What technology is employed for enforcement in urban and truck charging systems?
3. What were the main results after the first year of charging system operation?
4. How has the ecological situation been improved within the charging zone?
5. What has the success of charge resulted in?
Ex. 9. Substitute the words in Russian with their appropriate equivalents in English. 1. Road (выбросы транспорта) and fossil (потребления топлива) in the zone have been reduced.2. (Водители) entering the centre of the city during (в рабочее время) must pay a (фиксированную однодневную плату). 3. Generally the (затор) charge has been accepted by the public and by business. 4. The (влияние) of the electronic (система дорожных сборов) have been carefully monitored. 5 Vehicles are (отслеживаются) entering the (платная область) by (камеры видео наблюдения) using automatic (технология распознавания номерного знака).6. Reducing (заторов на дорогах) has enabled more busses to be run with much more (надежный) journey times. 7. No (значительных изменений) in (уровень шума) have been recorded. 8. (Затор) and the (интенсивность движения) within the zone has (уменьшены). 9. (Штрафы) are sent out to drivers of cars entering the zone (без оплаты). 10. Average (наполняемость автобусов) has increased but (переполненность) has been avoided.
Ex. 10. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the use of the gerund.
1.For traffic management, there is a great deal of monitoring and an increase in the amount and reliability of information given to users. 2. Varying the charge by distance travelled within the UK ensures that all vehicles contribute equally irrespective of their country o or where they last refueled. 3. There is little scope for reducing the annual tax on vehicle ownership further. 4.The extent of feeling unsafe when using public transport is relatively high. 5. Multimodal transport is of highly effective and modem ways of facilitating one movement of imports and exports. 6. Getting round in certain urban areas is becoming an increasingly time-consuming, difficult, uncomfortable, hazardous and stressful activity.
Ex. 11. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the use of participle II.
l. Air pollution caused by intensive car, lorry and air traffic is finally starting to worry those who are most exposed to it. 2. One of the main measures considered by logistics managers of agro industries with continuous process is related to truck waiting times in the reception area. 3 The total journey time by public transport consists of the time taken to get to or from bus-stop, the waiting time and the time on board the vehicle. 4. The distribution services offered included warehousing, administration, order processing and the control of the goods towing via the transport network. 5. Transport services provided in return for money can immediately be classed as third-party operations 6. Based on a literature study and laboratory tests, full scale tests should be carried out on existing roads.
Ex. 12. Give the main points of the text in 4-7 sentences. Use the following clichés:
The text deals with... .The author points out that... . Attention is drawn to the fact that... . It is pointed out that... . It should be noted what... . The author comes to the conclusion that... . I find the text rather/very... .
UNIT 4 RUSH HOURS Ex. 1. Mind the new words and expressions
Ex. 5. Choose the right variant for each world combination. Mind the use of the world “way”.
1. under way
2. no two ways about it
3. in many ways
4. in some ways
5. by way of
6. by the way
7. no way
8. the other way (round)
a. во многих отношениях
c. полным ходом
d. в некоторой степени
e. ради, с целью
g. ничего не выйдет
h. двух мнений быть не может
1. way bill
2. way cargo
3. way fare
4. way passenger
5. way side
6. way train
7. waybill destination
b. попутный пассажир
c. пункт назначения согласно путевому листу
e. попутный груз
f. пригородный поезд
g. местный тариф
Ex. 6. Look at the title and say what information the text gives. Read the
text attentively for the details.
The higher the speed of a vehicle, the more difficult collision avoidance becomes and the greater the damage if a collision does occur. Therefore, many countries of the world limit the maximum speed allowed on their roads. Vehicles are not supposed to be driven at speeds which are higher than the posted maximum.
To enforce speed limits, two approaches are generally employed. In the USA, it is common for the police to patrol the streets and use special equipment to measure the speed of vehicles, and “pull over” any vehicle found to be in violation of the speed limit. In Brazil and some European countries, there are computerized speed measuring devices spread throughout the city, which will automatically defect speeding drivers and take a photograph of the license plate, which is later used for applying and mailing the ticket.
Another interesting mechanism that was developed in Germany is the Grime Welle, or green lights along that corridor. This encourages drivers to travel at the posted limit in order to minimize stopping.
During business days in most major cities, traffic congestion reaches great intensity at predictable times of the day due to the large number of vehicles using the road at the same time. This phenomenon is called rush hour, although the period of high traffic intensity may exceed one hour.
Some cities adopt policies to reduce rush-hour traffic and pollution and encourage the use of public transportation. For example, in SSo Paulo, Brazil each vehicle has a specific day of the week in which it is forbidden from traveling the roads during rush hour.
In the United States and Canada, several expressways have a special lane that can only be used by cars carrying two or more people, and several cities offer a public telephone service where citizens can arrange rides with others depending on where they live and work. The purpose of these policies is to reduce the number of vehicles on the roads and thus reduce rush-hour traffic intensity. Uncontrolled traffic occurs in the absence of lane markings and traffic control signals.