Ex. 7. Provide answers to the questions below.
1. What is the first approach employed in the USA?
2. What mechanism was developed in Germany to inforce speed limits?
3. How do the authorities in Sao Paulo, Brazil reduce rush-hour traffic and pollution?
Ex. 8. Read and translate the text.
Types of Roads.
In large cities, moving from one part of the city to another by means of ordinary streets and avenues can be time-consuming since traffic is often slowed by at-grade junctions, tight turns, narrow marked lanes and lack of a minimum speed limit.
The words expressway and freeway have varying meanings in different jurisdictions and in popular use in different places; however, there are two different types of roads used to provide high-speed access across urban areas:
The freeway or motorway is a divided multi-lane highway with fully- controlled access and grade-separated intersections. Some freeways are called expressways, superhighways, or turnpikes, depending on local usage. Access to freeways is fully controlled; entering and leaving the freeway is permitted only at grade-separated interchanges.
The expressway is usually a broad multi-lane avenue, frequently divided, with some grade-level intersections.
Motor vehicle drivers wishing to travel over great distances within the city will usually take the freeways or expressways in order to minimize travel time. When a crossing road is at the same grade as the freeway, a bridge will be built for the crossing road. If the freeway is elevated, the crossing road will pass underneath it.
Ex.9. Match the types of interchanges and definitions.
4 5 6 Ex. 10. Make a presentation about road interchanges of Kazan. Name their types.
Ex. 11. Discuss whether the constructed interchanges in Kazan solved the problem of road congestion. Use the following words and word combinations.
Improvement, road system, traffic jams, lessen, public transport, become better/worse.
I agree/disagree, from my point of view, on the one hand …, on the other hand…, to tell the truth, on the contrary …. Ex.12. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the use of the infinitive.
1. Vehicles are not supposed to be driven at speeds which are higher than the posted maximum. 2. To enforce speed limits, two approaches are generally employed. 3. This encourages drivers to travel at the posted limit in order to minimize stopping. 4. Some cities adopt policies to reduce rush-hour traffic and pollution and encourage the use of public transportation. 5. The purpose of these policies is to reduce the number of the roads and thus reduce rush-hour traffic intensity . 6. The tonnage transported is expected to decrease due to lighter products, and the average distance of transport is expected to increase due to the exploitation of scale economy in production costs.
UNIT 5 ECONOMY OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION Ex. 1. Mind the new words and expressions.
acute- острый, крайний, критический
attribute– показатель, характеристика
To constrain– ограничивать, сдерживать
convergence– схождение в одной точке, сближение
disparity– различия; несоответствие
divergence– расхождение, отклонение
To expropriate– лишать собственности, отчуждать
to impose– налагать, устанавливать
mandatory– обязательный, принудительный
restriction- ограничение, помеха
sustainable– устойчивый (экологически)
Trucking industry- грузоперевозки
trunk - магистраль; главная линия
vested - законный, принадлежащий по праву
Ex. 2. Match the word with the appropriate definition.
1. commodities that are tangible, usually movable, and generally not consumed at the same time as they are produced;
2. to establish as something to be obeyed or complied with; enforce to
3. willingness and ability to purchase goods and services
4. economics expenditure on goods and services for final personal use
5. the stock of fixed capital equipment in a country, including factories, roads, schools, etc., considered as a determinant of economic growth
6. having a present right to the immediate or future possession and enjoyment of property
7. an economic effect that results from an economic choice but is not reflected in market prices
Ex. 3 Match English and Russian equivalents
a. influence b. lessening
Ex. 4. Choose the right variant for each word combination.
k. устойчивая окружающая среда
l. автомобиль в личной
Ex. 5. Read the text and find answers to the questions after the text.
Road transportation is the mode that has expanded the most over the last 50 years, both for passengers and freight transportation. This is the result of growth of the loading capacity of vehicle and an adaptation of vehicle to freight (e.g. perishables, fuel, construction materials, etc) or passengers (e.g. school bus) demand for speed, autonomy and flexibility. New types of problems, such as a significant growth of fuel consumption, increasing environmental problems, traffic congestion and a multiplication of road accidents have emerged.
Most roads are provided as a public good by governments, while the majority of vehicles are owned privately. The capital costs, therefore, are shared, and do not fall as heavily on one source as is the case for other modes.
Consequently, a growing number of roads have been privatized and companies specializing in road management have emerged, particularly in Europe and North America. This is only possible on specific trunks that have an important and stable traffic. Unlike governments, private enterprises have vested interests to see that the road segments they manage are maintained and improved since the quality of the road will be directly linked with revenue generation. The majority of toll roads are highways linking large cities or bridges and tunnels where there is a convergence of traffic. Most roads are not economically profitable but must be socially present as they are essential to service populations.
Governments can expropriate the necessary land for road construction since a private enterprise may have difficulties to expropriate without government support. In most jurisdictions, trucks and buses have specific weight and length restrictions which are imposed for safety reasons. In addition, there are serious limits on the traction capacities of cars, busses and trucks because of the considerable increases in energy consumption. For these reasons the carrying capacities of individual road vehicles are limited.
Road transport, however, possesses significant advantages over other modes.
The capital cost of vehicles is relatively small. This produces several key characteristics of road transport.
Low vehicle costs make it comparatively easy for new users to gain entry, which helps ensure that the trucking industry, for example, is highly competitive.
Another advantage of road transport is the high relative speed of vehicles, the major constraint being government-imposed speed limits.
One of its most important attributes is the flexibility of route choice, once a network of roads is provided.
Road transport has the unique opportunity of providing door to door service for both passengers and freight.
These multiple advantages have made cars and trucks the modes of choice for a great number of trip purposes, and have led to the market dominance of cars and trucks for short distance trips.
Technological evolution of road transport vehicles was a continuous trend since the construction of the first automobiles.
The new materials (ceramics, plastics, aluminum, composite materials, etc...), fuels (electricity, hydrogen, natural gas, etc...) and computerization (vehicle control, location, navigation and toll collection) are being included in cars and improve the efficiency of road transport systems.
Urban population has increased considerably over the last 50 years and about 50% of the global population was urbanized by 2000 (about 3 billion people).
Cycling is to be considered an alternative to the automobile in urban areas, widely adopted in developing countries, although more for economic reasons. A symbiosis between types of roads and types of traffic with specialization (reserved lanes and hours) is to be expected.
What are the main problems of road transportation?
What are the main types of road ownership?
Why will the quality of the road be directly linked with revenue generation?
Why does road transport possess significant advantages over other modes of transport?
What is considered as an alternative means of transport to the automobile in urban areas?
Ex. 6. Work in groups, discuss advantages and disadvantages of road transport in comparison with other transport modes.
Ex. 7. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the use of the modal verbs.
1. Access to infrastructure and allocation of rail infrastructure charges have to be fair to the operators and should be non-discriminatory in relation to other transport modes. 2. In a well functioning market, rail transport can play an essential role as a link in the intermodal supply chain and in the logistical strategies of companies. 3. With information technology freight and vehicle flows may be monitored and thus controlled and optimized. 4. Rail transport could offer a good alternative for both passengers and freight. 5. The importance of the transportation should also be seen by looking at the impact of transportation on a country's economy.
Ex. 8. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the use of the passive voice.
1. Since 90% of all traffic information is perceived visually, special attention must be paid to the visibility of traffic signs and systems. 2. Domestic road transport is being deregulated in most European countries. 3. Transport of goods by road is still hampered by restrictions on cabotage, empty runs and a lack of fiscal, technical and social harmonization. 4. Entrepreneurs offering transport services are being encouraged to develop door-to-door delivery system which implies finding the ultimate balance between the existing transport modes. 5. Transport is affected by international economic shifts, by tourism and by changes in the balance of trade with Europe. 6. Road infrastructure costs have been closely examined in the UK over many years. 7. Changes in the supply of transport services are affected by men technologies, customer demand and external cost.
Ex. 9 Read and translate the text.
Problems and Perspectives of Transport System.
Transport is a key factor in modern economies. However, there is a permanent contradiction between society, which demands ever more mobility, and public opinion, which is becoming increasingly intolerant of delays and the poor quality of some transport services.
As demand for transport keeps increasing, the answer cannot be just to build new infrastructure and open up markets. The transport system needs to be optimized to meet the demands of enlargement and development. A modern transport system must be sustainable from an economic and social as well as an environmental viewpoint.
Plans for the future of the transport sector must take account of its economic importance. New technologies, increased population, growth of cities set new objectives for transport policy: restoring the balance between modes of transport and developing intermodality, combating congestion and putting safety and the quality of services at the heart of our efforts, while maintaining the right to mobility. One of the main challenges is to define common principles for fair charging for the different modes of transport. This new framework for charging should both promote the use of less polluting modes and less congested networks and prepare the way for new types of infrastructure financing.
Ex. 10. Work in groups. Discuss problems and prospects of transport system using the following words and word combinations.
Transport policy, different modes of transport, congestion, quality of service, safety, new technologies; as for me …., as a matter of fact …, in other words …, to my mind ….
UNIT 6 ENVIRONMENMENTAL PROBLEMS Ex. 1. Mind the new words and expressions
j. нормативы по окружающей среде k. выбросы газов, вызывающих парниковый эффект
1. блок батарей
m. подвижность транспортного потока
n. емкость аккумулятора
p. снижение содержания серы
q. растительное топливо
Ex. 5. Read the text attentively and learn how scientists try to solve ecological problems produced by transport.
Transport is a major use of energy, and transport burns most of the world's petroleum. Transportation accounts for 2/3 of all U.S. petroleum consumption.
The transportation sector generates 82 percent of carbon monoxide and 56 percent of NOx emissions and over one-quarter of total US greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrocarbon fuels also produce carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas widely thought to be the chief cause of global climate change, and petroleum-powered engines, especially inefficient ones, create air pollution including nitrous oxides and particulates.
Although vehicles in developed countries have been getting cleaner because of environmental impacts of transport systems include traffic congestion and automobile-oriented urban sprawl, which can consume natural habitat and agricultural lands. Toxic runoff from roads and parking lots can also pollute water supplies and aquatic ecosystems.
Alternative propulsion can reduce pollution. Low pollution fuels may have reduced carbon content, and thereby contribute less in the way of carbon dioxide emissions, and generally have reduced sulfur, since sulfur exhaust is a cause of acid rain. The most popular low-pollution fuels at this time are biofuels: gasoline-ethanol blends and biodiesel. Hydrogen is an even lower-pollution fuel that produces no carbon dioxide, but producing and storing it economically is currently not feasible. Plug-in hybrids are energy-efficient vehicles that are going to be in the mass-production.
Another strategy is to make vehicles more efficient, which reduces pollution and waste by reducing the energy use. Electric vehicles use efficient electric motors, but their range is limited by either the extent of the electric transmission system or by the storage capacity of batteries. Electrified public transport generally uses overhead wires or third rails to transmit electricity to vehicles, and is used for both rail and bus transport. Battery electric vehicles store their electric fuel onboard in a battery pack. Another method is to generate energy using fuel cells, which may eventually be two to five times as the internal combustion engines currently used in most vehicles. Another effective method is to streamline ground vehicles, which spend up to 75% of their energy on air-resistance, and to reduce their weight. Regenerative braking is possible in all electric vehicles and recaptures the energy normally lost to braking, and is becoming common in rail vehicles. In internal combustion automobiles and buses, regenerative braking is not possible, unless electric vehicle components are also a part of the powertrain; these are called hybrid electric vehicles.
To achieve real environmental objectives, attention should be focused on all motor vehicles, not just new vehicles. Features such as on board diagnostics systems can monitor engine output, while regular technical inspection reveals if vehicles are well-maintained and operating under optimal conditions.
It takes about ten years for the national vehicle fleet to be renewed. Providing incentives to replace old gas-guzzling vehicles with newer, fuel-efficient models, for instance payouts to scrap old vehicles, would speed up the process of fleet renewal and help reduce carbon gas emissions.
Oil companies are improving their petrol and diesel products, such as new environmental regulations and respond to new developments in engine technology.
Alternative fuels such as natural gas produce lower CO2 emissions.
On the other hand, so experts think that plant-based fuels may not provide the answer to CO2 emissions because of their negative overall energy and environmental performance from cultivation to final use.
Motor vehicles achieve optimal performance where traffic flow is most fluid. Ways of improving traffic fluidity, reducing congestion and hence lowering fuel consumption are:
building new road infrastructure where necessary;
improving current infrastructure;
installing road signs providing both directions and information on the road network to allow tourists to choose the best route.
In the United States, for example, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are being installed in 75 of the largest urban areas, an investment that should help reduce journey times by 15%.
Shifting travel from automobiles to well-utilized public transport can reduce energy consumption and traffic congestion.
Walking and bicycling instead of traveling by motorized means also reduces the consumption of fossil fuels. While the use these two modes generally declines as a given area becomes wealthier, there are some countries (including Denmark, Netherlands, Japan and parts of Germany, Finland and Belgium) where bicycling comprises a significant share of trips. Some cities with particularly high modal shares of cycling are Copenhagen (33%) and Groningen (50%). A number of other cities, including London, Paris, New York, Sydney, Bogota, Chicago and San Francisco are crating networks of bicycle lanes and bicycle paths, but the value of such devices for utility cycling is highly controversial.