What is thought to be the chief cause of global climate change?
What are the other environmental impacts of transport system?
How can pollution be reduced?
What are the most popular low-pollution fuels?
What is another strategy to make vehicle more efficient?
What is the most effective way to generate energy?
How can real environmental objectives be achieved?
What are the major ways of improving traffic fluidity?
Do you know any other alternative ways to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels?
Ex. 7. The following table summarizes the CO2 emission factors by freight transport mode, established by Essen in 2003. Match transport modality and green tonality. Which is the greenest means of transport? Which the most polluting one? Write a short paragraph to summarise these data.
UNIT 7 URBAN TRANSPORT Ex. 1. Mind the new words and expressions
adverse – неблагоприятный, вредный
to affect – наносить вред, влиять
to cancel out – свести на нет
to drive apart – отдалять друг друга
dormitory – спальный пригород (район)
hazardous – опасный, рискованный
to hinder – мешать, препятствовать, задерживать, затруднять
j. транспорт для пассажирских и грузовых перевозок (грузовые автомобили, автобусы, троллейбусы)
к. городской общественный транспорт
Ex. 5. Scan the text to find answers to the following questions.
1. What is the origin of the term `transportation`?
2. What aspects does the field of transportation have?
3. What is important on cities to help public transport perform properly?
4. What are the main problems of urban transport sector?
Ex. 6. Read the text attentively for more information about different aspects of transport and transportation.
Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. The term is derived from the Latin trans (“across”) and portare (“to carry”).
Transport is more than just another sector of the economy. Transport is the core of society. It gives a structure to space and our concept of space. It shapes and reflects our ways of life and our cultures. It contributes to economic development, whereas the economy depends on goods transportation. The functioning of society largely depends on the quality and design of the transportation system. A defective system will hurt society badly.
The field of transport has several aspects: infrastructure, vehicles, and operations. Infrastructure includes the transport networks (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals, pipelines, etc.) that are used, as well as the nodes or terminals (such as airports, railway stations, bus stations and seaports).
An automobile is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. Different types of automobiles include cars, buses, trucks, and vans. Some include motorcycles in the category, but cars are the most typical automobiles.
The automobile was thought of as an environmental improvement over horses when it was first introduced in the 1890s. In 2006, the automobile was recognized as one of the primary sources of world-wide air pollution and a cause of substantial noise pollution and adverse health effects.
Urban transport has been led by professional transport planners and traffic experts. Too much infrastructure and too much smoothing for maximum vehicle throughput means that in many cities there is too much traffic and many - if not all - of the negative impacts that come with it.
The situation is most critical in the urban transport sector. Getting round in certain urban areas is becoming an increasingly time-consuming, difficult, uncomfortable, hazardous and stressful activity. Congestion is a daily fact on roads, motorways, and at important traffic intersections. Safety conditions created to cope with fewer and slower vehicles are inadequate to deal with present conditions. The quality of freight and passenger transportation and the economic function are affected.
The most common negative factors here are:
Lack of safety. The safety aspect in transportation is often - and wrongly - played down. It is highly relevant, particularly to road transport. Every year, 50,000 people are killed and a further1,500, 000are injured on European roads. The economic cost aside, this is totally unacceptable in human and social terms. Although figures have fallen in the long term, the annual body count is still far too high. The quality of safety on European roads is low.
Noise: Transport is a prime source of noise and vibration. These factors grow fast with traffic volume. In certain areas the noise levels now hinder normal work and living. Hence, instead of uniting people, transport can actually drive them apart. Indeed, it has actually transformed some residential areas into human deserts, particularly where these adjoin major urban arteries, highways, railway lines and airports. The quality of life in dormitory towns is affected.
Traffic density. Paradoxically, above a certain threshold, traffic density also hinders social relations. Very busy roads through villages and built-up areas can make trip hazardous and actually restrict free movement.
Ex. 7. Here are series of common road signs. Match them to their meanings
(Затор) is a daily fact on major roads, (автомагистралях), and at important traffic (перекрестках). 2. The quality of (безопасности) on European roads is low. 3. Getting round in certain (городских) areas is becoming an increasingly (отнимающий много времени), difficult, uncomfortable, (опасный) and stressful activity. 4. The (качество) of life in (спальныхрайонах) is affected by. 5. The (качество) of (грузоперевозок) and passenger transportation and the economic function are (наносится вред). 6. The (безопасность) aspect in transportation is highly
(существенный) particularly to road transport. 7. In 2006, the automo-
bile (был признан) as one of the primary sources of world-wide (за-
грязнение воздуха) and а (причина) of (существенное) noise pollution and (вредное влияние на здоровье). 8. Transport is a prime (источник шума) and vibration. 9. (Городские транспортные пробки) now (не-отделимы) from the (городских) scene - (усложняют) the use of cars, buses and trams. 10. Too much infrastructure and too much smoothing for maximum (пропускной способности автомобилей) means that in many cities there is too much traffic and many negative (воздействия).
Ex.9. Translate the sentences into Russian. Mind the different meanings of the verb to be.
Efficiently operating transport networks in the former segmented European space-economy are critical success factors for the competitive edge of Europe. 2. Competitive efficiency is in the centre of current European transport policy. 3. There is a major more recent policy concern on the question whether transport will be devastating for environmentally sustainable development. 4. The purpose of production logistics is to ensure that each machine and workstation is being fed with the right product in the right quantity and quality at the right point of time. 5. It is also through the physical distribution process that the time and space of customer service become an integral part of marketing, thus it links a marketing channel with customers. 6. Transport is more than just another sector of the economy. 7. It is not just a matter of constraints on comfort and freedom to choose the means of transport. 8. Congestion is a daily fact on major roads, motorways, and at important traffic intersections. 9. Another strategy is to make vehicles more efficient, which reduces pollution and waste by reducing the energy use.
Ex.10. Translatethe sentences into Russian. Mind the use of the verbs in Passive Voice.
The automobile was thought of as an environmental improvement over horses when it was first introduced in the 1890s. 2. In 2006, the automobile was recognized as one of the primary sources of world-wide air pollution and a cause of substantial noise pollution and adverse health effects. 3. Urban transport has been led by professional transport planners and traffic experts. 4. Production logistics can be applied in existing as well as new plants. 5. The term is primarily intended to be used when goods are to be carried by rail or road, but it may be used for any mode of transport. 6. The term DDP - Delivered Duty Paid may be used irrespective of the mode of transport.
Ex.11. Work in pairs. Complete the table, by putting the safety features from the box into the right column.
Ex.12. Translate the following text into Russian. Use the dictionary if necessary.
Nearly all roadways are built with devices meant to control traffic. Most notable to the motorist are those meant to communicate directly with the driver. Broadly, these fall into three categories: signs, signals or pavement markings. They help the driver navigate; they assign the right- of-way at intersections; they indicate laws such as speed limits and parking regulations; they advise of potential hazards; they indicate passing and no passing zones; and otherwise derive. R information and to assure traffic is orderly and safe.
200 years ago these devices were signs, nearly all informal. In the late 19th century signals began to appear in big cities at a few highly congested intersections. They were manually operated, and consisted of semaphores, flags or paddles, or in some cases colored electric lights, all modeled on railroad signals. In the 20th century signals were automated, at first with electromechanical devices and later with computers. Signals can be quite sophisticated: with vehicle embedded in the pavement, the signal can control and coordinate the turning movements of heavy traffic in the most complex of intersections. In the 1920s traffic engineers learned how to coordinate signals along a thoroughfare to increase its speeds and volumes. In the 1980s, with computers, similar coordination of whole networks became possible.
In the 1920s movement markings were introduced. Initially they were used to indicate the road’s centerline. Soon after they were coded with information to aid motorists in passing safely. Later, with multilane roads they were used to define lanes. Other uses, such as indicating permitted turning movements and pedestrian crossing soon followed.
In the 20th century traffic control devices were standardized. Before then every locality decided on what its devices would look like and where they would be applied. This could be confusing, especially to traffic from outside the locality. In the United States standardization was first taken at the state level, and late in the century at the federal level.
Each country has a Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and there are efforts to blend them into a worldwide standard.
Besides signals, signs and markings, other forms of traffic control are designed and built into the roadway. For instance, curbs and rumble strips can be used to keep traffic in a given lane and median barriers can prevent left turns and even U-turns. Ex.13. Read the text about fleet monitoring and answer the questions.
One controversial scheme for improving an aspect of road safety has been introduction of the so-called “fleet monitoring”. You may have seen lorries, vans, and other commercial vehicles driving on the streets with sign printed on them similar to the one above. This sign is an invitation for the general public to inform transport companies of any improper behavior by their drivers. If you see vehicle driving too fast, overtaking dangerously or not respecting signals or limits, then you can call the number on the sign to report the incident. This invitation to make the normal citizen responsible has proven to be very useful to transport companies who have to pay large insurance premiums and feel the need to make sure that their drivers are behaving correctly and efficiently at all times. Of course, the scheme has been criticized by many people, as they feel that they can be abused – some people have reported drivers simply because they had an argument with them, for example; and others feel that it also encourages a form of spying. Whatever you think the “fleet monitoring” scheme is certainly popular with employers in the field, so it appears destined to grow.
What is “fleet monitoring” scheme?
Why was it introduced?
When should the public use the telephone number?
Why was the scheme been criticized by some people?
Is there anything similar in your country? What is your opinion of it, and why?
Ex.14. Prepare a short oral presentation giving your opinion on the importance of road safety. Use the information from the texts above the expressions below to help you.
I think that … . In my opinion…
I’m for/against fleet monitoring … because …
UNIT 8 TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS Ex. 1. Mindthe new words andexpressions
Ex. 5. Read the text attentively and say what you have learnt about transportation, logistics and electronic auctions. Logistics is the art and science of managing and controlling the flow of goods, energy, information and other resources like products, services, and people, from the source of production to the marketplace. The operating responsibility of logistics is the geographical repositioning of raw materials, work in process, and finished inventories where required at the lowest cost possible.
Logistics is an idea considered to have transformed from the military’s need to supply them as they moved from their base to a forward position.
Logistician is the profession in the logistics and transport sectors, including sea, air, land and rail modes.
Logistics Management is that part of the supply chain which plans, implements and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customers' requirements. A professional working in the field of logistics management is often called a logistician.
Supply Chain can be defined as having the right item in the right quantity at the right time at the right place for the right price and is the science of process and incorporates all industry sectors. The goal of logistic work is to manage the fruition of project life cycles, supply chains and resultant efficiencies.
The main functions of a qualified logistician include inventory management, purchasing, transportation, warehousing, consultation and the organizing and planning of these activities. Logisticians combine a professional knowledge of each of these functions so that there is a coordination of resources in an organization. There are two fundamentally different forms of logistics. One optimizes a steady flow of material through a network of transport links and storage nodes. The other coordinates a sequence of resources to carry out some project.