Учебное пособие «transportation»


Ex. 6. Answers these questions



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Ex. 6. Answers these questions.

  1. What does logistics management do?

  2. What are the main functions of a qualified logistician?

  3. What are the goals of producers and sellers in transportation?

  4. What are the advantages of electronic reverse auctions compared to

conventional auctions?

  1. What is the effect of open competition in electronic reverse auctions?


Ex. 7. Substitute the words in Russian with their appropriate equivalents in English.


  1. Logistics management is that part of the (цепочки поставок) which implements and controls (прямой и обратный поток товаров) between the point of origin and (пунктом потребления) in order to meet (запросы потребителей). 2. The main (цель) is to minimize (затраты) for transportation and logistics and deliver goods to customers (в возможно короткие сроки). 3. The main functions of a qualified (логиста) include inventory management, (покупку), transportation, (складирование), consultation and the organizing and planning of activities. 4. (Перевозчик) can (поставлять свои услуги) to a large number of seller and, (следовательно), can also easily find their potential (потребителя). 5. Professional (логистическая поддержка) involves the integration of information, transportation, (материально-техническая база), material handing, and packaging. 6. (Логистическая цепочка) can be defined as having the (соответствующей предмет) in the (соответствующем количестве) at the (соответствующее время) at the (соответствующем месте) for the (соответствующую цену) and the science of process and incorporates all industry sectors.

Ex. 8. Choose the right variant for each word combination.

1. available inventory

2. book inventory

3. finished good inventory

4. lot-size inventory

5. replenishment of inventories

6. projected inventory turnover rate

7. supply inventory

8. taking inventory

9. target inventory level

10. Seasonal inventory

11. in-transit inventory

12. Inventory and valuation policy

13. inventory balance

14. inventory carrying charge rate

15. inventory carrying сosts




a. сезонный запас

b. запасы в пути (на момент учета находящиеся в процессе перевозки)

с. максимальный запас (сумма теку-

щих,подготовительных,страхового

запасов, при превышении которых образуются излишки)

d. уровень запасов

e. запас вспомогательных материалов

f. запасы готовой продукции

g. наличные запасы

h) затраты на формирование и хранение

i. прогнозируемый коэффициент

запасов оборачиваемости запасов

j. восстановление уровня запасов

k. инвентарный учет товарно-материальных запасов)

l. страховой полис с описью и оценкой

m. текущие запасы

n. стоимость хранения запасов

o. проведение инвентаризации





Ex.9. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the use of the Infinitive.

  1. In order to respond to random orders from customers and to stabilize the production process, inventories are maintained at sections of the production process. 2. Ability to communicate almost instantaneously, large amounts of information and data to suppliers, customers and transport providers has allowed firms to operate with increased efficiency.3. It is critical to predict how a particular shift in logistics will affect the demand for transport production will affect the infrastructure system. 4. To keep costs down and avoid an increase in the number of trucks on the roads, shipments must be consolidated. 5. For the European economy to operate as a single market there has to be presence of commo0n transport policy.

  1. The purpose of the cooperation is to make it possible to support research and development activities on the road traffic noise of common interest to the two parties. 7. To protect their own market share the national companies will not complete with other smaller and regional companies.


Ex.10. Give the main points of the text in 4-7 sentences. Use the following clichés:

The text is about….. . It is shown that … . In the opinion of the author it is … . Of special interest is his argument that … . The author concludes by saying that … .
Ex. 11. Translate the following text into Russian. Use the dictionary if necessary.

Multimodal transport is one of the highly effective and modern ways of facilitating movement of imports and exports. It is a transport logistic system based on new transport technology that ensures fast and safe movement of goods at least costs.

Facilitation of trade and transport sectors calls for procedural, legal and institutional reforms to simplify, standardize and harmonise procedures and documentation that will help to achieve movement of goods at a minimum cost and time. This covers a wide spectrum of activities including human resource development, physical infrastructures, and the use of new transport and information technologies.

The definition given by the United Nations Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods of 1980 has clearly identified four basic characteristics of multimodal transport such as the use at least two modes of transport, transfer of goods between two countries, issuance of a transport contract and the performance by a multimodal transport contractor taking in charge of whole movement of cargo.



Ex.12. Match the following modal shifts with the right picture.

  1. Ship to lorry. 3. Train to lorry

  2. Lorry to warehouse. 4. Airplane to lorry.




UNIT 9 PERFORMANCE OF MOTOR TRANSPORT DEPOTS
Ex. 1. Mind the words

Depot - база, депо

To perform – выполнять, исполнять

To charge/to load – загружать

To discharge/to unload – разгружать

Forwarding services – экспедиторские услуги

Autoloader – автопогрузчик

Workshop – мастерская

Technical maintenance – техническое обслуживание

To implement/to accomplish – осуществлять

Guidance – руководство

Adherence – соблюдение

To submit to – подчиняться

Middle way – среднемагистральный

High way – магистральный

To improve – улучшать, совершенствовать
Ex. 2. Translate the words and word combinations.

Depot, motor transport depot, performance of motor transport depots; charging/discharging operations, to perform charging/discharging operations and forwarding services; to have territory for garages and workshops; to implement management; guidance, technical guidance, technical guidance is headed; the department is submitted to director.
Ex. 3. Read and translate the text.

Motor Transport Depot

Motor transport depots perform passenger and cargo transportation. They are responsible for servicing passenger routes, charging/discharging operations, forwarding and warehousing services and intermodal shipment.



Motor depots have territories, warehouses and storage facilities, cargo handling facilities, passenger terminals, access ways to railway, sea and air transport, garages and workshops for technical maintenance, and qualified staff.

Depot performance management is implemented by the following areas: finance, technical guidance, safe traffic control and cargo forwarding and transportation service.

Technical guidance of the depot is headed by the chief engineer. This department is responsible for technical service and maintenance of vehicles, monitoring and supervision of adherence to technical specifications.

Safe traffic control department is submitted to general director of the depot. This department is responsible of drivers training, coordination and regulation of routes, interaction with traffic inspection, and etc.

Cargo forwarding and transportation service is the most complex structure in the depot. Its main function is to deliver cargoes to the customer.

Ex. 4. Answer the questions.

  1. What do motor transport depots perform?

  2. What are the main departments of depot?

  3. What is technical guidance responsible for?

  4. What are the functions of safe control department?

  5. What is the most complex structure in the depot?


Ex. 5. Translate the words in brackets using the words from the text.

  1. Motor transport depots (выполняют) passenger and cargo transportation.

  2. Depot performance management (осуществляется) by the following areas:

finance, technical guidance, safe traffic control and cargo forwarding and

transportation service.

  1. Technical department (осуществляет) technical servicing and maintenance of vehicles, mornitoring and supervision for adherence to technical specifications.

  2. Safe traffic control department (подчиняется) to general director of the depot.

  3. Cargo forwarding and transportation service (доставляет) cargoes to the customer.


Ex. 6. Read and translate the text.

Operation of Motor Transport Depots

T

ruck cargo transportation is accomplished in three directions: in-city transportation, middle way and high way transportation. To arrange transportation properly cargo handling complexes, repair and maintenance shops, open and covered storage and warehouses, cargo handling facilities are at depot disposal. The cargo complexes specialize in handling specific types of cargoes and in servicing specific cargo traffic routes.

Intermodal cargo handling operations are performed when there is a need to transship cargo from one mode of transport to another.

Efficient activity of transport depots is impossible without information computer centers equipped with locale net of computers. The problems like drawing up cargo plan and optimal cargo traffic routes, working out schedules of depot operations and performance of each particular service are solved with the help of computers.

The tasks of each department fit together with the overall activity of the depot achieving organizational goals and thus improving depot performance.
Ex. 7. Match English and Russian equivalents.

1. Motor transport depot activity

2. Passenger and cargo transportation
3. In-city transportation

4. Middle way transportation

5. High way transportation

6. Open and covered storage and

warehouses

7. At disposal

8. Activity

9. Locale computer net

10. Drawing up cargo plan

11. Optimal cargo traffic route

12. Schedule


a. Расписание

b. Оптимальный маршрут перевозки

грузов

c. В распоряжении

d. Деятельность

e. Составление грузового плана

f. Деятельность автобазы

g. Пассажирские и грузовые

перевозки

h. Городские перевозки

i. Открытые и закрытые склады

j. Магистральные перевозки

k. Локальная компьютерная сеть

l. Среднемагистральные перевозки


Ex. 8. Make up word-combinations.

  1. transport

  2. technical

  3. forwarding

  4. intermodal

  5. traffic

  6. to deliver

  7. cargo handling

  8. maintenance




    1. services

    2. routes

    3. maintenance

    4. facilities

    5. passengers

    6. shops

    7. shipment

    8. cargo


Ex. 9. Work in pairs. Make up a dialogue using the word-combinations from ex. 3

Ex. 10. Discuss performance of motor transport depot, its problems, goals, ways of improvement.
UNIT 10 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TRANSPORT



Ex. 1. Mind the new words and expressions:

aids – вспомогательные средства

bill of lading - коносамент, транспортная накладная

compatible - совместимый; сочетаемый

driving licence - водительские права

enforcement - требование о соблюдении (законов, стандартов, норм, тарифов)

to enhance - увеличивать, усиливать, улучшать

electronic funds transfer (EFT) - электронный перевод средств (платежей)

to fit - монтировать; устанавливать;

fleet - парк (транспортных средств)

HGV - heavy goods vehicle - большегрузный автомобиль

idle time - время простоя

immobilization - потеря подвижности

maintenance - техническое обслуживание; ремонт; эксплуатация

occupant – пассажир

packing slip = packing list – упаковочная ведомость

penalty – штраф, наказание

protection device - защитное устройство, предохранитель

purchase order - заказ на покупку, доставку

reminder - устройство передачи аварийных сигналов

road holding – держание дороги (автолюбителем); курсовая устойчивость

smart device - интеллектуальное устройство

spacing - интервал, расстояние, промежуток

to tackle - пытаться найти решение (каких-л. вопросов)

telematics - интегрированные средства обработки и передачи информации

invoice - счет-фактура, накладная


Ex. 2. Match the word with the appropriate definition.

Exchange, driving license, distribution, bar code, technology, telematics.

  1. the application of practical sciences to industry or commerce.

  2. the division of the total income of a community among its members, esp. between labour incomes (wages and salaries) and property incomes (rents, interest, and dividends).

  3. to transfer or hand over (goods) in return for the equivalent value in kind rather than in money; barter; trade.

  4. a machine-readable arrangement of numbers and parallel lines of different widths printed on a package, which can be electronically scanned at a checkout to register the price of the goods and to activate computer stock-checking and reordering.

  5. the branch of science concerned with the use of technological devices to transmit information over long distances.

  6. an official document or certificate authorizing a person to drive a motor vehicle.


Ex. 3. Match English and Russian equivalents.

  1. braking habits



  1. on-board computer



  1. renewable energy sources



  1. vehicle spacing

  2. repair shop

  3. financial settlement

  4. optimal routing

  5. heat engine

  6. fleet maintenance

  7. hydrogen fuel cells

  8. onboard driving aids

  9. prevention measures

  10. impact resistance

  11. improved road holding

  12. slippery surface

  13. warning system

  14. smart protection device

  15. tailored protection

  16. to wear seatbelts

    1. финансовое регулирование

    2. ударопрочность

    3. оптимальная маршрутизация

    4. профилактические меры

    5. ремонтная мастерская

    6. стиль вождения

    7. возобновляемые источники энергии

    8. пристегнуть ремни безопасности

    9. расстояние между автомобилями

    10. бортовой компьютер

    11. тепловой двигатель

    12. обслуживание парка

    13. система предупреждения

    14. интеллектуальное устройство защиты

    15. водородные топливные элементы

    16. бортовые вспомогательные средства вождения

    17. специализированная защита

    18. скользкая поверхность

    19. улучшенное содержание дороги

Ex. 4. Read the text and find answers for the questions after the text.

Information Technologies

Information technology (IT) is process and “act upon” information at the right time and place, makes greater market intelligence possible. IT is instrumental in supporting the basic internal and inter-company transactions associated with distribution, transport and related services: preparation of the logistics process; planning of the process; operations and control; financial settlement; fleet maintenance and mornitoring.

The benefits of all information technology innovations in road freight operations result from improved, real-time electronic exchange of data and information. Information technology innovations enable or will require the electronic exchange of data and information concerning:


  • cargo, vehicle and driver identification and status;

  • vehicle location;

  • current traffic conditions;

  • optimal routing, taking into consideration the availability of loads and appropriate equipment to move them, traffic and weather conditions, the nature of the cargo being transported, using routing algorithms or "artificial intelligence" (so-called "real-time routing”);

  • optimal routing of cargo (package or whole shipments);

  • optimal routing o f load units (trailers, containers, swap bodies, etc).

Here are the main innovations in information technology:

1. Automatic vehicle identification: transmits vehicle information (identification, size and weight, vehicle type or class);

2. Bar coding: provides product and picking information (identification. size and weight, origin and destination);

3. Electronic data interchange: transmits business data and provides electronic business documentation (purchase order; bill of lading; packing slip; invoice; electronic funds transfer);

4. In-vehicle navigation systems: provides driver with information (highway and traffic conditions; location (of vehicle, destination, etc.); alternate routes; automatic vehicle spacing);

5. On-board computer (mobile IT): monitors vehicle and driver behavior (vehicle speed; engine idle time; engine oil temperature and pressure; vehicle stop time and distance; driver's braking habits);

6. Two-way communication systems: exchange messages between a dispatcher and a driver (trip and shipment information; location (of vehicle, destination, etc.) including location of maintenance and repair shops).

Technological innovation provides an excellent opportunity to integrate the transport modes, optimise their performance, make them safer and help make the transport system compatible with sustainable transport development.

I. What is 'information technology"?

2. What do information technology innovations enable?

3. What are the main innovations in information technology?

4. What does technological innovation provide?



Ex.5. Analyze the table below and discuss advantages and disadvantages of the mentioned features.

Ex.6. Read and translate the text.

IT in Transport

Technological developments enhance the usual methods of control and penalties, with the introduction of automatic devices and onboard driving aids. In the same context, the eventual fitting in road vehicles, as in other forms of transport, of black boxes to record parameters which help explain the causes of accidents, will make motorists more responsible and enable more effective prevention measures to be taken. The introduction of electronic driving licenses could also help with the enforcement of penalties, such as the immobilisation of vehicles whose drivers have lost their licenses.

Intelligent transport systems are another opportunity. It would be useful to encourage the introduction of active safety systems for all new vehicles. Fitted with innovative technologies, for example, in the area of traffic management and collision-avoidance systems, such vehicles hold out the prospect of road safety being improved by 50%.

Technological progress should also increase vehicles' impact resistance thanks to the development of new materials and the introduction of new advanced design processes for structural integrity. Current progress with tyres (reduced water projection for HGV tyres, improved road holding on slippery surfaces, warning system to indicate under-inflated tyres) should in the short term make for reduced fuel consumption and rolling noise while maintaining a high level of safety. This should produce a 10% saving on fuel and around 1 000 fewer deaths per year.


Protection of vehicle occupants in the event of impact is progressing remarkably. Electronic systems will enable new smart protection devices (airbags for example) to adjust for the number of vehicle occupants, their morphology and the nature of the impact so as to provide more tailored protection. Reminders to put safety belts on must become standard vehicle equipment. In Sweden, 95% of car occupants wear their seatbelts. However, half of all those killed in accidents were not wearing their at the time of the accident.
Finally, as the volume of traffic increases, better vehicle-speed management is an essential aspect of safety that will also help to tackle congestion. In addition to improved road safety, observation of speed limits will also reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly. The most promising prospects here are offered by new technologies that can determine optimum speed at any moment with reference to traffic conditions, road features and external conditions (such as weather) and pass the information on to drivers by way of information display boards or on-board communication systems. Roads and vehicles need to be equipped with these new technologies as soon as possible, and information systems made accessible to everyone.

Ex.7. Choose any of the safety features and describe its functions.



Ex.8. Substitute the words in Russian with their appropriate equivalents in English.

1. Technological innovation (обеспечивает) an excellent (возможность) to integrate the (виды транспорта), make them safer and help make the European transport system (совместимой) with (yстойчивое) transport development. 2. (Бортовой компьютер) monitors vehicle and (поведение водителя): vehicle speed; engine (время простоя); (paccтояние) driver's (cтиль вождения). 3. In addition to improved (безопасность дорог), observation of (orpaничение скорости) will also (уменьшит) greenhouse gas (выбросы) significantly.4. The most (обещающий) prospects are offered by new technologies that can (oпределять) optimum speed at any moment with reference to (ycловия движения), (характеристиками дорог) and external conditions and pass the information on to drivers by way of information display boards or (бортовая система связи). 5. Technological (разработки) enhance the usual methods of control and (штрафов), with the introduction of automatic devices and (бортовых вспомогательных средств вождения). 6. As the (объем движения) increases, better (управление скоростью автомобиля) is an essential aspect of (безопасность) that will also help (peшать проблему заторов). 7. IT is instrumental in supporting the basic (сделки) associated with (распределением), transport and (финансовое регулирование); fleet (техническое обслуживание) and monitoring. 8. (Защита) of vehicle (пассажиров) (в cлучае столкновения) is progressing remarkably. 9. Information technology innovations (требуют) the electronic (o6мен данных) and information concerning: (груз); vehicle location; current (условия движения); optimal (cxeмы движения груза). 10. The eventual (установка) in road vehicles, as in other forms of transport, of (черных ящиков) to record parameters which help explain the (причина аварии),will make motorists more (отвественный) and enable more effective (профилактические меры) to be taken.



Литература


  1. Большой англо-русский политехнический словарь: в 2 т./ С.М. Баринов, А.Б. Борковский и др. – М.: РУССО, 2003.

  2. Боярская А.О., Педько Л.В., Слесаренок Е.В. Английский для специалистов по организации перевозок: пособие. – Минск: БНТУ, 2009.

  3. Ernesto D’Acunto. Flash on English for Transport and Logistics. – ELI S.R.L., 2012

  4. Marie Kavanagh. English for the Automobile Industry. – Oxford University press, 2012.

  5. Swan Michael, Walter Catherine. The New Cambridge English

Course. Practice 1. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Интернет-источники


  1. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org

  2. Transportweekly. http://www.transportweekly.com/




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