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  1. J. R. Gibson, Farming the Frontier The Agricultural Opening of the Oregon Country, 1786 to 1846 (Seattle University of Washington Press, 1985) стр. 25. Gabriel Franchere отмечал слабительное действие лососины и в сообщении о своем путешествии на Северо-Запад 1811-1814 гг. Смотрите G. Franchere A Voyage to the Northwest Coast of North America (New York Citadel Press, 1968) стр. 179.

  2. J. A. Craig and R. L. Hacker The History and Development of the Fisheries of the Columbia River, Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 49(32): 133-216 (1940).

  3. Gibson, Farming the Frontier стр. 24.

  4. Gibson, Farming the Frontier стр. 48.

  5. R. T. Tetlow and G. J. Barbey, Barbey The Story of a Pioneer Columbia River Salmon Packer (Portland, OR: Binford and Mort, 1990) стр. 3.

  6. M. V. Hayden, History of the Salmon Industry in the Pacific Northwest M. S. thesis, University of Oregon, Eugene, 1930; см. также Craig and Hacker, The History and Development of the Fisheries of the Columbia River, см. также S. E. Morrison, New England and the Opening of the Columbia River Salmon Trade, Oregon Historical Quarterly 28(2): 111-132 (1927).

  7. Craig and Hacker, The History and Development of the Fisheries of the Columbia River.

  8. D. B. DeLoach, The Salmon Canning Industry Oregon State College Economic Studies No. 1, Corvallis, 1939, стр. 9.

  9. A. Lufkin (ed.), California's Salmon and Steelhead The Struggle to Restore an Imperiled Resource (Berkeley University of California Press, 1991), см. также G. H. Clark, Sacramento - San Joaquin Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Fishery of California Fish Bulletin No 17, California Division of Fish and Game, Sacramento 1929.

  10. A. F. McEvoy, The Fishermans Problem: Ecology and Law in the California Fisheries, 1850-1980 (New York Cambridge University Press, 1986).

  11. Craig and Hacker, The History and Development of the Fisheries of the Columbia River, стр. 150.

  12. E. C. May, The Canning Clan A Pageant of Pioneering Americans (New York Macmillan, 1937).

  13. R. D. Hume, Salmon of the Pacific Coast (San Francisco Schmidt Label & Lithographic Company, 1893).

  14. May, The Canning Clan.

  15. R. D. Hume, History of the Salmon Industry of the Pacific Pacific Fisherman 1: 9(1903).

  16. Hume, History of the Salmon Industry of the Pacific.

  17. Hayden, History. of the Salmon Industry m the Pacific Northwest, стр. 10.

  18. DeLoach, The Salmon Canning Industry стр. 15.

  19. G. Meggs, Salmon The Decline of the British Columbia Fishery (Vancouver BC Douglas and McIntyre, 1991).

  20. D. A. Stacey, Sockeye and Tinplate Technological Change in the Fraser River Canning Industry 1871-1912, British Columbia Provincial Museum Heritage Record No. 15, Victoria, 1982, стр. 2.

  21. W.G. Robbins, Colony and Empire The Capitalist Transformation of the American West (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1994), стр. 63.

  22. J. N. Cobb, Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix 13 to the Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Fisheries for 1930, Bureau of Fisheries Document No. 1092, Washington, DC, 1930.

  23. Stacey, Sockeye and Tinplate, см. также Cobb, Pacific Salmon Fisheries.

  24. D. S. Jordan and C. H. Gilbert, The Salmon Fishing and Canning Interests of the Pacific Coast, in The Fisheries and Fishing Industry of the United States, sec 5, History and Methods of the Fisheries, volume I, part 13, под ред. G. B. Goode, Washington, DC, 1887, стр. 729-751; и M. McDonald, The Salmon Fisheries of the Columbia Basin, Bulletin of the US Fish Commission, 14: 153-167(1895).

  25. C. L. Smith, Salmon Fishers of the Columbia (Corvallis Oregon State University Press, 1979).

  26. Fourth Annual Salmon Day Celebrated, Pacific Fisherman 15(3): 1 (1916).

  27. Fourth Annual Salmon Day, Pacific Fisherman.

  28. Fourth Annual Salmon Day, Pacific Fisherman.

  29. D. Newell, The Development of the Pacific Salmon-Canning Industry: A Grown Man's Game (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1989).

  30. H. E. Gregory and K. Barnes, North Pacific Fisheries with Special Reference to Pacific Salmon, Studies of the Pacific No. 3, American Council Institute of Pacific Relations, New York, 1939, стр. 93-96.

  31. G. Dodds, The Salmon King of Oregon: R.. D. Hume and the Pacific Fisheries (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1959).

  32. «Закупорить» - термин рыбаков, использовавших в качестве орудий лова жаберные сети и невода; «закупорить» - значило поставить сеть прямо перед кем-то, тем самым лишая его улова.

  33. A. Netboy, The Salmon: Their Fight for Survival (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974), стр. 277; см. также Tetlow and Barbey, Barbey: The Story of a Pioneer Columbia River Salmon Packer, стр. 17; and H. W. McKervill, The Salmon People: The Story of Canada's West Coast Salmon Fishing Industry (Sidney, EC: Gray's Publishing, 1967), стр. 58.

  34. M. F. McKeown, The Trait Led North: Mont Hawthorne's Story (New York: Macmillan, 1949), стр. 13.

  35. W. Ricker, Effects of the Fishery and of Obstacles to Migration on the Abundance of Fraser River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 1522, Nanaimo. BC, 1987.

  36. Ricker, Effects of the Fishery and of Obstacles to Migration.

  37. Cited in P. Thompson, T. Wailey, and T. Lummis, Living the Fishing (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1983).

  38. I. Martin, Legacy and Testament: The Story of the Columbia River Gillnetters (Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1994).

  39. Smith, Salmon Fishers of the Columbia, стр. 28.

  40. Robbins, Colony and Empire, стр.180.

  41. Interview with A. L. Flesher, retired fisherman, April 20, 1995, Newport, OR.

  42. E. Beard, Biography, Oregon Historical Society, Manuscript 1509, Portland.

  43. Hayden, History of the Salmon Industry, стр. 45.

  44. Martin, Legacy and Testament.

  45. McEvoy, The Fisherman's Problem, стр. 96.

  46. Jordan and Gilbert, The Salmon Fishing and Canning Interests, стр. 736.

  47. Smith, Salmon Fishers of the Columbia, стр. 25.

  48. О дискриминации китайских рыбаков в Калифорнии смотри McEvoy, The Fisherman's Problem. Smith также рассказывает о китайских рыбаках и о других этнических группах рыбаков в Salmon Fishers of the Columbia; Meggs раскрывает проблемы индейских и японских рыбаков лосося в Британской Колумбии в Salmon: The Decline of the British Columbia Fishery. Сообщения о нападении на австрийских рыбаков, промышлявших кошельковыми неводами, содержались в Washington State Fish Commissioner, Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Annual Reports, Olympia, 1920. см. также Aliens Threaten the Salmon Industry, Oregon Journal (Portland), August 8, 1919, стр. 10. Дискуссию об индейском рыбном промысле см. Washington State Senate, Minutes of the Washington State Columbia River Salmon Interim Committee, October 20, 1943.

  49. B. Leibhardt, Law, Environment, and Social Change in the Columbia River Basin: The Yakima Indian Nation as a Case Study, 1840-1933, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1990.

  50. American Friends Service Committee, Uncommon Controversy (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1970), стр. 41.

  51. McEvoy, The Fisherman's Problem.

  52. M. A. Baumhoff, Ecological Determinants of Aboriginal California Populations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963).

  53. McEvoy, The Fisherman's Problem, стр. 34—35 и 51—60.

  54. McEvoy, The Fisherman's Problem, стр. 58-60; и Dodds, The Salmon King of Oregon, стр. 174-179.

  55. Краткую сводку различных сообщений об уменьшении лосося в Якиме смотри у J. A. Lichatowich and L. E. Mobrand, Analysis of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River from an Ecosystem Perspective, Bonneville Power Administration, DOE/BP-23105-2, Portland, OR, 1995, стр. 36.

  56. Leibhardt, Law, Environment, and Social Change.

  57. Leibhardt, Law, Environment, and Social Change.

  58. Leibhardt, Law, Environment, and Social Change, стр. 346.

  59. Leibhardt, Law, Environment, and Social Change, стр. 36l.

  60. T. Roosevelt, Eighth Annual Message, in The State of the Union Messages of the Presidents, 1790-1966, volume III, под ред. F. Israel (New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1967).

  61. H. McAllister. Annual Report of the Oregon Department of Fisheries, Portland, 1908.

  62. Цитата из McAllister, Annual Report of the Oregon Department of Fisheries.

  63. S. G. Kohlstedt, The Origins of Natural Science in America: The Essays of George Brown Goode (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), стр. 164-165.

  64. J. E Reiger, American Sportsmen and the Origins of Conservation (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986).

  65. G. B. Goode. The Status of the U.S. Fish Commission in 1884, part XII: Report of the Commissioner for 1884, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1886.

  66. C. Cranston, The Fish and Game Laws of Oregon, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Forty-second Annual Meeting, September 3-5, 1912, Denver (Washington, DC, 1913), стр. 75-87.

  67. J. Crutchfield and G. Pontecorvo, The Pacific Salmon Fisheries: A Study of Irrational Management (Baltimore: Resources for the Future/Johns Hopkins Press, 1969); и B. Mace, Chronological History of Fish and Wildlife Administration in Oregon, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, 1960.

  68. H. O. Wendler, Regulation of Commercial Fishing Gear and Seasons on the Columbia River from 1859 to 1963, Washington Department of Fisheries, Fisheries Research Papers 2(4): 19-31 (1966).

  69. J Chirred:, Summary Coastal River Regulations—1878-1950, Unpublished manuscript, Oregon Fish Commission, Portland, 1953; Crutchfield and Pontecorvo, The Pacific Salmon Fisheries; and Meggs, Salmon The Decline of the British Columbia Fishery, см. также R. Cooley, Politics and Conservation The Decline of the Alaska Salmon (New York: Harper and Row, 1963).

  70. Oregon State Board of Fish Commissioners, Second Report to the Governor Salem, 1888.

  71. J. L. Riseland, Twenty-second and Twenty-third Annual Reports of the State Fish Commissioner to the Governor of the State of Washington, Washington Department of Fisheries and Game, Olympia, 1912.

  72. Stacey, Sockeye and Tinplate.

  73. Smith, Salmon Fishers of the Columbia.

  74. Jordan and Gilbert, The Salmon fishing and Canning Interests.

  75. M. McDonald, The Salmon Fisheries of the Columbia Basin.

  76. W. Rich, The Salmon Runs in the Columbia River in 1938, Fishery Bulletin No. 37, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, 1942.

  77. Wendler, Regulation of Commercial Fishing Gear and Seasons on the Columbia River.

  78. Dodds, The Salmon King of Oregon, стр. 145.

  79. Senator I. H. Bingham, Letter to H G. Van Dusen, April 26, 1909, Oregon Historical Society Archives, Portland, Warren Packing Company, Record 1141, Box 1; см. также Master Fish Warden Van Dusen Dismissed, Oregon Journal (Portland), March 26, 1908, Oregon Historical Society Archives, Seufert Canning Company, Record 1102.

  80. H. G. Van Dusen, Letter to Senator 1. H. Bingham, April 19, 1909, Oregon Historical Society Archives, Portland, Warren Packing Company, Record 1141, Box 1.

  81. Senator 1. H Bingham, Letter to H. G. Van Dusen, April 26, 1909.

  82. Vanity of Salmon Theories (editorial), Oregonian (Portland), November 13, 1906.

  83. Rich, Salmon Runs of the Columbia River in 1938.

  84. D. Johnson, W. Chapman, and R. Schoning, The Effects on Salmon Populations of the Partial Elimination of Fixed Fishing Gear on the Columbia River in 1935, Contribution No. 11, Oregon Fish Commission, Portland, 1948.

  85. Increasing Use of Gasoline engines in Fishing Industry, Pacific Fisherman 5(6): (1906); см. также Sixty Years Ago: When a Fish Boat Engine Was a Dream of Pioneers, Pacific Fisherman 56(13): (1958).

  86. F. Caldwell, Pacific Trailer (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, 1978).

  87. Cobb, Pacific Salmon Fisheries.

  88. Martin, Legacy and Testament.

  89. E. Smith, The Taking of Immature Salmon in Waters of the State of Washington, Washington Department of Fisheries, Olympia, 1920.

  90. D. Milne, Recent British Columbia Spring and Coho Salmon Tagging Experiments and a Comparison with. Those Conducted from 1925 to 1930, Bulletin No. 113, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa, 1957.

  91. California Fish and Game Commission, Twenty-sixth Biennial Report, Sacramento, 1921; and also California Fish and Game Commission, Twenty-seventh Biennial Report, Sacramento, 1923.

  92. Smith, The Taking of Immature Salmon.

  93. Washington State Fisheries Board, Meeting of Fisheries Executives of the Pacific Coast, Seattle, March 16-17, 1925, General stacks, Fisheries Library, University of Washington, Seattle.

  94. Salmon Fisheries in Oregon, Qregonian (Portland), March 3, 1875.

  95. Remonstrance, Oregoman (Portland), January 1, 1877.






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