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  1. International Fisheries Exhibition, An Illustrated Description of the Electric Light Machinery in The Exhibition, with Elementary Notes on the Production of Electric Currents (London: William Clowes and Sons, 1883).

  2. H. R. MacCrimmon, The Beginning of Salmon Culture in Canada, Canadian Geographical Journal 71(5): 96-103 (1965).

  3. International Fisheries Exhibition, Fisheries Exibition Literature, volume VI, Conferences, part III (London: William Clowes and Sons, 1883).

  4. W. H. Fry, Complete Treatise on Artificial Ftsh-Breeding (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1854) Эта первая книга об искусственном разведении, опубликованная в США описывала ранние европейские работы по рыбоводству; см. также G. B. Goode, Pisciculture, in The Encyclopaedia Britannica, volume 19 (Chicago: Werner Company, 1898).

  5. S. G. Kohlstedt, The Origins of Natural Science in America The Essays of George Brown Goode (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991); см. также L. White, Jr., The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis, Science 155(3767): 1203-1206 (1967).

  6. Fry, Complete Treatise on Artificial Fish-Breeding, стр. 27.

  7. Например, смотрите эти две статьи в январско-февральском выпуске Fisheries 1992 года. J. Martin, J. Webster, и G. Edwards, Hatchery and Wild Stocks: Are They Compatible? и R. Hilborn, Hatcheries and the Future of Salmon in the Northwest, Fisheries 17(1): 4-8 (1992).

  8. Fry, Complete Treatise on Artificial Fish-Breeding, стр. 11; также Fish-culture in America, Harper's New Monthly Magazine 37(222): 721-739 (1868).

  9. Independent Scientific Group, Return to the River: Restoration of Salmonid Fishes in the Columbia River Ecosystem, Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR, 1996; and National Research Council, Upstream Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996).

  10. R. McIntosh, The Background of Ecology Concept and Theory (New York Cambridge Studies m Ecology, Cambridge University Press, 1985), and D. I. Bottom, To Till the Water A History of Ideas in Fisheries Conservation, in Pacific Salmon and Their Ecosystems Status and Future Options, под ред. D. J. Stouder, P. A. Bisson, и R. J. Naiman (New York Chapman and Hall 1997), стр. 569-597.

  11. Fry, Complete Treatise on Artificial Fish-Breeding, стр. 21-22.

  12. E. Clark, The Oysters of Locmariaquer (New York Harper Perennial, 1992), стр. 86—87, см. также Harper} New Monthly Magazine, Fish-culture in America.

  13. Fry, Complete Treatise on Artificial Fish Breeding, стр. 187.

  14. T. Steinberg, Nature Incorporated Industrialization and the Waters of New England (New York Cambridge University Press 1991), стр. 167.

  15. Harpers New Monthly Magazine Fish-culture in America, стр. 738.

  16. Steinberg Nature Incorporated, стр. 186—187.

  17. G. P. Marsh, Artificial Propagation of Fish Report Made under the Legislative Authority of Vermont (Burlington VT Free Press Printing 1857).

  18. L. Stone, Some Brief Reminiscences of the Early Days of Fish-Culture in the United States, Bulletin of the US Fish Commission 25(22): 338 (1897).

  19. D.C. Allard, Jr., Spencer Fullerton Baird and the US Fish Commission (New York Arno Press, 1978).

  20. Allard, Spencer Fullerton Baird, см. также Steinberg, Nature Incorporated.

  21. W. T. Bower, History of the American Fisheries Society, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society Fortieth Annual Meeting, September 27—29, 1910 (Washington, DC, 1911).

  22. U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner for 1872 and 1873, part II, Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1874, стр. 757-772.

  23. Allard, Spencer Fullerton Baird, стр. 160.

  24. L. Stone, Artificial Propagation of Salmon on the Pacific Coast of the United States With Notes on the Natural History of the Quinnat Salmon, U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, DC, 1896, см. также J. W. Hedgpeth, Livingston Stone and Fish Culture in California California Fish and Game 27(3): 126-148(1941).

  25. L. Stone, письмо профессору Spencer Baird August 31, 1872, National Archives, Beltsville, MD, Record Group 22, Volume 7, Entry 1.

  26. L. Stone, письмо к Spencer Baird, February 24, 1873, National Archie Beltsville, MD, Record Group22.

  27. Stone, Some Brief Reminiscences of the Early Days of Fish Culture in the United States, стр. 339.

  28. Hedgpeth, Livingston Stone and Fish Culture in California.

  29. L. Stone Letter в письме к Baird, February 24, 1873.

  30. M. V. Hayden History of the Salmon Industry in the Pacific Northwest M.S. thesis, University of Oregon Eugene, 1930.

  31. R. J. Miller and E. L. Brannon, The Origin and Development of Life History Patterns in Pacific Salmon, in Salmon and Trout Migratory Behavior Symposium, под ред. E. L. Brannon and E. O. Salo, School of Fisheries, University of Washington, Seattle, 1982, стр. 296-309.

  32. О низкой выживаемости переселенной рыбы см. в R. R. Reisenbichler, Relation Between Distance Transferred from Natal Stream and Recovery Rate for Hatchery Coho Salmon, North American Journal of Fisheries Management 8: 172-174 (1988); см. также Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Review of the History, Development, and Management of Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Portland, OR, 1990, стр. 17; A. M. McGie, Analysis of Relationships Between Hatchery Coho Salmon Transplants and Adult Escapements m Oregon Coastal Watersheds, Information Report Series, Fisheries No 80-6, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Charleston OR, 1980; и L. Shapovalov, An Evaluation of Steelhead and Salmon Management in California, Inland Fisheries Branch, California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, 1953, стр. 29.

  33. G. B. Goode, The Status of the U S Fish Commission in 1884, part XII, Report of the Commissioner for 1884, Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1886, стр. 1162.

  34. Hedgpeth, Livingston Stone and Fish Culture in California.

  35. National Research Council, Upstream.

  36. D. Worster, Nature's Economy A History of Ecological Ideas (New York Cambridge University Press, 1977), стр. 53.

  37. H. M. Smith, A Review of the History and Results of the Attempts to Acclimatize Fish and Other Water Animals in the Pacific States, Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission for 1895, volume 15, Washington, DC 1896, см. также Allard, Spencer Fullerton Baird.

  38. A. Nicols, The Acclimatisation of the Salmonidae at the Antipodes Its History and Results (London Sampson, Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington 1882).

  39. H. M. Smith, Fish Acclimatization of the Pacific Coast, Science 22(550): 88-89 (1893).

  40. L. Stone, The Artificial Propagation of Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Transactions of the American Fish-Culture Association, Thirteenth Annual Meeting, May 13-14, 1884, Washington, DC, стр. 21.

  41. Oregon State Board of Fish Commissioners, Fourth Annual Report, Salem 1890, стр. 26.

  42. A. C. Little, Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports of the Washington State Fish Commissioner, Olympia, 1901, стр. 18.

  43. S. Johnson, Freshwater Environmental Problems and Coho Production in Oregon Information Report 84 11, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Corvallis.

  44. R. Bunting, The Pacific Raincoast Environment and Culture m an American Eden, 1778-1900 (Lawrence University Press of Kansas, 1997).

  45. Bunting, The Pacific Raincoast.

  46. Little, Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports of the State Fish Commissioner.

  47. J. Titcomb, Report on the Propagation and Distribution of Food-fishes, Report of the U.S. Commissioners of Fish and Fisheries for 1902, Washington, DC, 1904.

  48. Oregon Game Commission, Biennial Report of the Oregon Game Commission, Salem, 1942.

  49. U.S. Department of Interior and the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, The Elwha Report: Restoration of the Elwha River Ecosystem and Native Anadromous Fisheries, Report Submitted Pursuant to Public Law 102-495, National Park Service, Port Angeles, WA, 1994.

  50. B. Brown, Mountain in the Clouds: A Search far the Wild Salmon (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982).

  51. P. Johnson, Historical Assessment of Elwha River Fisheries, Draft Report, Olympic National Park, Port Angeles, WA, 1994.

  52. Johnson, Historical Assessment of Elwha River Fisheries.

  53. Приводится у Johnson, Historical Assessment of Elwha River Fisheries.

  54. Приводится у Johnson, Historical Assessment of Elwha River Fisheries.

  55. Brown, Mountain in the Clouds.

  56. Brown, Mountain in the Clouds.

  57. На реке Elwha стят две плотины; другая была построена на девять миль выше плотины Aldwell, в каньоне Glines.

  58. Бюджет смотри U.S. General Accounting Office, Endangered Species: Past Actions Taken to Assist Columbia River Salmon, GAO/RCED-92-173BR, Washington, DC, 1992. Независимые данные смотри в National Research Council, Upstream: Independent Scientific Group, Return to the River; and National Fish Hatchery Review Panel, Report of the National Fish Hatchery Review Panel, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA, 1994. Упорную защиту смотри в Oregonian (Portland), Overhauling Fish Factories, December 7-1998.

  59. L. Stone, A National Salmon Park, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 21: 149-162 (1892).

  60. B. Harrison, Afognak Forest and Fish Culture Reserve: A Proclamation-Washington, DC, 1892, National Archives, Washington, DC, Record Group 22, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  61. P. Roppel, Salmon from Kodiak, Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History No. 216, Anchorage, 1986. Willis Rich изучал озеро Litnik в 1931 году и пришел к выводу, что в нём недостаточно планктона для питания молоди лосося, выпускаемой с рыбоводного завода. Удаление рыбьих тушек из озера могло вносить свой вклад в уменьшение продуктивности озера.

  62. J. J. Brice, Establishment of Stations for the Propagation of Salmon on the Pacific Coast, Miscellaneous Documents, U.S. House of Representatives, 53rd Congress, Washington, DC, 1895. Через тридцать лет California Fish and Game Commission содействовали выдвижению петиции о запрете строительства плотин в низовьях Кламата. Инициатива была принята. Statement of N. B. Scofield, Minutes of Meeting of Fisheries Executives of the Pacific Coast, 1925, стр. 124, General stacks, Fisheries Library, University of Washington, Seattle.

  63. H. Ward, The Preservation of the American Fish Fauna, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 42: 157-170 (1912).

  64. C. R. Pollock, Fortieth and Forty-first Annual Reports of the Washington State Department of Fisheries and Game, Olympia, 1932.

  65. Save Rivers for Fish, Oregon Voter (Portland), July 14, 1928, стр. 21-24.

  66. J. Cone and S. Ridlington, The Northwest Salmon Crisis: A Documentary History (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 1996).

  67. Oregon State Planning Board, A Study of Commercial Fishing Operations on the Columbia River. Report Submitted to the Governor of Oregon, Salem, 1938.

  68. История о заповедниках лосося адаптирована из J. A. Lichatowich and three others, Sanctuaries for Pacific Salmon, in Sustainable Fisheries Management: Balancing the Conservation and Use of Pacific Salmon, под ред. E. E. Knutson and four others (Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, in press).

  69. G. B. Goode, The Status of the U.S. Fish Commission in 1884.

  70. Goode, The Status of the U.S. Fish Commission in 1884, стр. 1157.

  71. Stone, Artificial Propagation of Salmon on the Pacific Coast of the United States, стр. 319; см. также Hedgpeth, Livingston Stone and Fish Culture in California, стр. 143.

  72. G. H. Clark, Sacramento—San Joaquin Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Fishery of California, Fish Bulletin No. 17- California Division of Fish and Game, Sacramento, 1929.

  73. Allard, Spencer Fullerton Baird, стр. 293.

  74. International Fisheries Exhibition, Fisheries Exhibition Literature, стр. 173.

  75. Goode, The Status of the U.S. Fish Commission in 1884, стр. 1157.

  76. E. M. Wood, A Century of American Fish Culture, 1853—1953, The Progressive Fish-Culturist 15(4): 147-162 (1953).

  77. M. McDonald, Address of the Chairman of the General Committee on the World Fisheries Congress, Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commission, volume 13, Washington, DC, 1894, стр. 15.

  78. H. Whitaker, Address of the President, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Twenty-second Annual Meeting, July 15, 1893 (New York, 1893); and H. Whitaker, Some Observations on the Moral Phases of Modern Fish Culture, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, June 12-13, 1895 (New York, 1896).

  79. H. Van Dusen, Annual Report of the Department of Fisheries of the State of Oregon to the Legislative Assembly, 1909, Salem, 1908, стр. 9. Вопрос, принимать ли рыбоводство на веру, пока индустрия не умрет, или же люди готовы заплатить за изучение её вклада в рыболовство, также был поставлен F. M. Chamberlin, Artificial Propagation, Pacific Fisherman 1(11): 10 (1903).

  80. J. N. Cobb, Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix 13 to the Report of the U S Commissioner of Fisheries for 1930, Bureau of Fisheries Document No 1092, Washington, DC, 1930

  81. J. Wallis, An Evaluation of the Alsea River Salmon Hatchery, Oregon Fish Commission Research Laboratory Clackamas, OR, 1963, стр. 11.

  82. Wallis, An Evaluation of the Alsea River Salmon Hatchery, стр. 25.

  83. Shapovalov, An Evaluation of Steelhead and Salmon Management m California, стр. 29.

  84. C. F. Culler, Progress in Fish Culture, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Sixty second Annual Meeting, September 21-23, 1932 стр. 118.

  85. G. Dodds, The Salmon King of Oregon R. D Hume and the Pacific Fisheries (Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press, 1959).

  86. H. Van Omen, Annual Report of the Department of Fisheries of the State of Oregon to the Legislative Assembly 1909, стр. 6; см. также J. I. Riseland Sixteenth and Seventeenth Annual Reports of the State Fish Commissioner and Game Warden to the Governor of the State of Washington (1905-1906) Washington Department of Fisheries and Game, Olimpia 1907, стр. 13.

  87. Oregon Fish and Game Commission, Biennial Report of the Fish and Game Commission of the State of Oregon, Salem 1919, стр. 16.

  88. L. H. Darwin Twenty sixth and Twenty seventh Annual Reports of the State Fish Commissioner to the Governor of the State of Washington, Washington Department of Fisheries and Game, Oljmpia, 1917, стр. 9.

  89. Willis Rich полагал, что рост продукции рыбоконсервных заводов произошел и вследствие Первой Мировой войны, которая произвела сдвиг в сторону увеличения производства именно консервов из лосося при уменьшении других видов его заготовки, а общий улов не изменился вовсе W. H. Rich, A Statistical Analysis of the Results of Artificial Propagation of Chinook Salmon 1922, Manuscript Library, Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle.

  90. R. Van Cleve and R. Ting, The Condition of Salmon Stocks in the John Day Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers as Reported by Various Fisheries Agencies, University of Washington, Department of Oceanography, Seattle, 1960, стр. 8.

  91. V. Smith, Fish Culture Methods in the Hatcheries of the State of Washington, Washington State Fish Commission, Olympia, 1919; см. также Oregon Fish Commission, Biennial Report of the Fish Commission of the State of Oregon for 1931 and 1932, Salem, 1933, стр. 15, C Brown, Adjustment of Environmental vs. Stocking to Increase the Productivity of Fish Life, Transaction of the American Fisheries Society, Fifty-first Annual Meeting, September 5-7, 1921, Alientown, PA (Washington, DC), volume 51, 1921-1922; P. R. Needham, Natural Propagation Versus Artificial Propagation in Relation co Angling, transactions of the Fourth North American Wildlife Conference, February 13-15, 1939 (Washington, DC American Wildlife Institute, 1939); R. E. Foerster, Sockeye Salmon Propagation in British Columbia, Bulletin No. 53, Biological Board of Canada Ottawa, 1936; and S. Gordon, Scientific Management Our Future Fisheries Jobs, transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Sixty-third Annual Meeting, 1933, Columbus, OH.

  92. Needham, Natural Propagation Versus Artificial Propagation.

  93. R. Hile, The Increase in the Abundance of the Yellow Pike Perch, Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill) in Lakes Huron and Michigan, in Relation to the Artificial Propagation of the Species, in The Collected Papers of Ralph Hile 1928-73, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, volume I, 1928-46, Washington, DC, 1977, стр. 154.

  94. All Sockeye Hatcheries Closed in British Columbia, Pacific Fisherman 34(5): 17 (1936).

  95. J. Taylor, Making Salmon Economy, Culture, and Science in the Oregon Fisheries, Precontact to I960, Ph. D. dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, 1996.

  1. Rich, A Statistical analysis of the Results of Artificial Propagation of Chinook Salmon.

  2. Cobb, Pacific Salmon Fisheries, стр. 493.

  3. J. Gottschalk Reports of Vice-Presidents of Divisions Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Seventy-first Annual Meeting August 25—26, 1941, St. Louis, MO (Washington, DC, 1942), стр. 22.



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