Общероссийское движение «трезвая россия» международная славянская академия союз борьбы за народную трезвость



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Выводы. Изложенный выше анализ дает основания считать, что в 1990–2010 гг. уровень преступности в Украине не всегда определялся объемом употребленного алкоголя. Но за это время в нашей стране 27% преступлений (каждый четвертый, или более 129 тыс. в год), было совершено в состоянии алкогольного опьянения. Большое количество убийств, разбоев, умышленных телесных повреждений, хулиганских поступков, совершенных под действием спиртного могли бы не состояться, при условии действенной профилактики. Украина несет большие финансово-экономические (прямые – от трех до 11 млрд. гривен), демографические, культурные, интеллектуальные и другие потери (которых невозможно посчитать), вследствие высокого уровня стигматизации части нашего общества. Ситуацию можно кардинально изменить только благодаря введению действенной антиалкогольной политики, как на местном, так и на национальном уровнях. Одним из первых, должна стать политика сокращения уровня потребления алкоголя – весомого фактора преступности – путем ограничения его доступности, запрета рекламы и внедрению просветительской политики о вреде этого наркотика, а также пропаганда культуры трезвости. Дальнейшее исследование социальных последствий употребления алкоголя в Украине, и практическое применение полученных результатов позволит сократить расходы на содержание большого количества лиц, которые могли бы работать на благо общества. Компенсированные средства можно привлечь на развитие образования, науки, медицины и других приоритетных отраслей, требующих лучшего финансирования.
Источники:

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2. Жданов В., Троицкая С. Алкогольные террор. Пить или жить? / В. Жданов, С. Троицкая. – СПб: Питер, 2010. – 256 с.

3. Немцов А.В. Потребление алкоголя и смертность в России / А. В. Немцов // Население и общество. Информационный бюллетень Центра демографии и экологии человека института народнохозяйственного прогнозирования РАН. – 1996. – № 10. – С.113 – 116.

4. Основні причини високого рівня смертності в Україні. – Київ: Версо-04, 2010. – 66 с.

5. Смертність населення України у трудоактивному віці [монографія] / Відпов. ред. Е.М. Лібанова. – К.: Ін-т демографії та соціальних досліджень НАН України, 2007. – 211 с.

6. Статистичний щорічник України за 2010 рік / Голова ред. кол. О.Г. Осауленко. – К.: Август-Трейд, 2011. – 560 с.

7. Шаповалова В.А., Шаповалов В.В., Рудика М.П. Судово-фармацефтичне вивчення зв’язку злочинності з психічними та поведінковими розладами здоров’я внаслідок вживання психоактивної речовини – алкоголю / О.В. Шаповалова, В.В. Шаповалов, М.П. Рудика // Ліки України. – 2010.  №2. – 53–55.

8. Щорічна доповідь про стан здоров'я населення України та санітарно-епідемічну ситуацію. 2008 рік / Гол. ред. В.М. Князевич. – К. : Український інститут стратегічних досліджень, 2009. – 360 с.

9. Федорчук І.М. Вчинення злочину особою, що перебуває у стані алкогольного сп'яніння або у стані викликаному вживанням наркотичних або інших одурманюючих засобів, як обставина, що обтяжує покарання / І.М. Федорчук // Науковий вісник Львівського державного університету внутрішніх справ. Серія юридична. – 2009. – №3. – С. 1– 10.

Электронные ресурсы:

10. База данных ВОЗ (HFA – DB). [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://data.euro.who.int/hfadb/profile/profile.php?w=1280&h=1024

11. База даних Держкомстату. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua/

12. Глобальная стратегия сокращения вредного употребления алкоголя / ВОЗ, Ле Мон-сюр-Лозан, Швейцария, 2010 г. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступу: www.who.publisher.org.int

13. Доклад по проблеме алкоголя в Европейском регионе ВОЗ. Исходный документ к Основам политики в отношении алкоголя в Европейском регионе ВОЗ. – Европейский региональный комитет. Пятьдесят пятая сессия / ВОЗ, Бухарест, Румыния, 12 – 15 сентября 2005 г. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступу: www.who.publisher.org.int

14. Европейский план действий по борьбе с потреблением алкоголя на 2000 – 2005 гг. / Европейское региональное бюро ВОЗ, Копенгаген, 2000. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступу: www.who.publisher.org.int

15. Закон України Про внесення змін до Закону України «Про Державний бюджет України на 2011 рік». [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступу: zakon1.rada.gov.ua

16. Комитет экспертов ВОЗ по проблемам, связанным с потреблением алкоголя. Серия технических докладов. Второй доклад (№944) / ВОЗ, Женева, 10 – 13 октября 2006 г. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступу: www.who.publisher.org.in t




Ya.Stasiv. Holder of a master’s degree, teacher of history, The Hight Professional Collage of Art of Lviv
The alcohol factor of crime in Ukraine in 1990 – 2010 years
Introduction. The crimes, which are committed in a state of alcoholic intoxication, form a large percentage of the total crimes in Ukraine. They are a factor of irreversible financial, economic, demographic, ethical and genetic losses for the Ukrainian society. The historical data confirms: the higher the level of the consumption of alcohol substances, the higher the percentage of crime. This statement can be examined by the example of our country. We can define the scale of losses and the main directions of the state policy to overcome this serious crime situation in Ukraine on the basis of the received results.

The main result of criminalization of society, which is caused by alcohol liquids, is that hundreds of thousands of persons, who are serving their sentences in the prisons, are not involved in the process of socialization. They could replenish the gene pool of Ukraine; the work, which they could perform while being at liberty, would bring much more benefit to society than that which is done in prison. Imprisonment prevents intellectual and spiritual development of individual as well as that part of society which is in prison. Therefore, the reduction of the level of alcohol consumption is essential for decreasing of the overall level of crime and the improvement of welfare of society of Ukraine.

Analysis of literature and sources. The problems of the crimes, which are committed in a state of alcohol intoxication in Ukraine, is not researched. The protocols of forensic medical analysis, which stated the facts of crimes that are committed under the influence ointoxicating alcohol, are produced in the articles by V. Shapovalova and other authors [7]. I. Fedorchuk’s work is devoted to the research of the crimes, which are committed under the influence of alcohol-containing substances from the point of aggravating and mitigating circumstances in judicial practice [9].

The date of State Statistics of Ukraine [11] and of statistics of the World Health Organization (later – WHO) are the basis for our article. Article is supplemented by the position papers of WHO, concerning the reduce of the level of alcohol in society, some of them are used at scientific research for the first time [12–14; 16]; by the works of home and foreign experts [3–4; 8] and by the works of figures of sobriety movement [2]. The aim of this research is the statistical analysis of crimes, which are related to the consumption of alcoholic substances in Ukraine in 19902010.

The main materials. Some foreign researchers (O. Nemtsov, D. Halturina, R. Rum), on the example of Russia and the so-called “Pianoho poiasu” The Baltic States, Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia, Moldova, Romania, Czech Republic, Poland, Germany, France and many other European countries, prove that the crime level in these countries is determined by the level of consumption of alcoholic substances and other drugs. This is also confirmed by WHO’s experts. In their positional paper is stated that the level of problems, which are associated with alcohol, the increases or the decreases in every society depending on the level of alcohol consumption: the higher the level of alcohol consumption, the higher the level of violence [16, p. 25]. The home academic literature also notes that the high alcoholization of population increases criminalization of society [8, p. 360].

The period, which is researched in the article, is chronologically divided into two parts: first – 1990 – 1999, second 2000 – 2010. The consumption of alcohol during the first period was at the level of 5–6 litres of pure alcohol per person (later – PAP). The second part is characterized by the increasing of the consumption of PAP to 810 or more liters (starting from 2000 year) and, as a result, the increasing of the percentage of crimes committed in a state of alcohol intoxication.

It is important to outline the general crime situation in Ukraine. Theft (59.5 million from the total number of prisoners), robbery (11.5 million), brigandage (4.1 thousand), intentional personal injuries (4.1 million), murder and attempt upon life (2.4 million) occupied, according to the State Statistics Committee, the leading place among all crimes committed during 19902010 years [6, p. 496]. Experts believe that these types of offenses most often committed by a person in a state of alcoholic intoxication [7, p. 54]. The coefficients of crime (number of reported crimes per 100 thousand of population) and conviction (number of prisoners per 100 thousand of population) were, on the average, 1,130 crimes and 418 prisoners accordingly during 1990 2010 [6, p. 498]. The total number of crimes committed during 1990 2010 was defined by oscillatory dynamics: from 369.8 thousand in 1990 to 641.9 thousand in 1995. 567.8 thousand crimes were committed in 2000. Then a decrease to 439.5 thousand in 2009, and increase to 505.4 in 2010 are observed. Thus, 481.1 thousand crimes were committed, on the average, during this period of time per year [6, p. 495]. The number and types of crimes by chronology is illustrated in Table 1, and the age of the convicts are shown in Table 2.

Table 1

The number of reported crimes according to certain types (in thousands)

Years

1990

1995

2000

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Reported crimes

369,8

641,9

567,8

566,4

527,8

491,8

428,1

408,2

390,2

439,5

505,4

Wilful and attempted murders

3,2

5,3

5,1

4,0

3,8

3,3

3,2

2,9

2,7

2,5

2,4

Intentional serious personal injury

6,7

8,8

6,9

6,3

5,9

5,7

5,3

5,5

5,1

4,1

3,8

Rape and attempted rape

2,7

1,9

1,2

1,0

1,0

0,9

1,0

0,9

0,9

0,8

0,6

Hooliganism

18,8

37,1

23,4

20,1

15,9

15,0

13,4

12,1

11,7

10,5

9,2

Brigandage

3,1

5,4

5,6

5,7

5,5

6,7

6,5

5,7

5,0

5,1

4,0

Robbery

17,8

32,2

23,0

36,5

40,8

47,1

41,7

32,3

26,9

27,6

23,3

Demanding

1,5

3,6

2,7

1,9

1,3

1,2

0,9

0,7

0,6

0,6

0,5


Source: Статистичний щорічник України за 2010 рік. – К., 2011. – С.495.

Table 2

Ages of the prisoners (in percentage)

Years

1990

1995

2000

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Prisoners (in persantage)

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Age


































14-17

12,1

7,8

8,7

10,5

10,6

9,9

8,7

7,3

6,9

5,9

6,4

18-24

24,5

25,1

27,8

29,3

28,5

29,5

29,0

29,2

27,5

27,1

25,6

25-29

21,0

18,2

18,5

17,8

17,0

17,0

17,5

18,3

18,2

19,1

19,3

30 and older

42,4

48,9

45,0

42,4

43,9

43,6

44,8

45,2

47,4

47,9

48,7

Person who committed crime in a state of alcoholic intoxication

43,6

28,4

23,9

24,4

26,0

25,6

26,4

26,7

26,1

26,3

26,9


Source: Статистичний щорічник України за 2010 рік. – К., 2011. – С.498.

We can observe a decrease of the number of convicts in the 14–17 years old age group from 12.1% (from 100% of convicts) in 1999 and 8.7% in 2000 to 6.4% in 2010. This is due to a decrease of the number of crimes committed by 14–15 years old age group. The next situation is observed in the 18–29 years old age group. Most alcohol-containing liquids in Ukraine is used by this age group and, as a result, it is the most criminalized [4, c.8]. 28% from 100% of prisoners were 18–24 years old during 1990 – 2010. Completely different situation is with 25–29 years old age group: 18% from the total number of prisoners were 25–29 years old persons during 1990 – 2010. The highest level of criminalization was observed in 30 years old and older age group: 44% of all prisoners, on average, were in this age during this period of time [6, p. 498].

A determinate indicator for us is the total number of crimes committed by persons in a state of alcohol intoxication: 43,6% from 100% of the prisoners (1990) were in a state of intoxication. The difficult economic situation, after the collapse of the USSR, led to a decrease of the level of consumption of PAP and, thus, the number of crimes committed by drunk people reduced too. In 1995, 28.4% from the total number of prisoners committed crime under the influence of alcohol. The reduce of the crime under the influence of alcohol can be traced till 2000 – 23.9% from 100% of the prisoners. The increase of alcohol consumption during 2002 – 2010, because of the growing of the economic welfare of the society, led to the increase of the overall level of crime. Therefore, we can see the increasing dynamic during 8 years from 23.8% to 26.9%, from the total number of prisoners, who were in a state of alcoholic intoxication. Thus, near 27% of people at the moment of committing the crime were in a state of intoxication during 1990 – 2010 in Ukraine. The average number of crimes during the mentioned years is 481,1 thousand per year, 27% of them (129.9 thousands per year) were committed under the influence of alcoholic substances. Thus, it means every fourth crime was committed in a state of alcoholic intoxication [6, p. 498].

The data in Table 2 show that despite the economic growth in 2000 – 2010, which, at first glance, should help to reduce the criminalization of the Ukrainian society, the reversed tendency can be observed. The consumption of PAP in Ukraine, according to the State Statistics Committee (see Table 3), does not exceed 4.1 liters during last 20 years [6, p. 289]. (Although the WHO’s data are significantly different from the Ukrainian statistics [10]). Table 3 provides comparative characteristic of the consumption of PAP in different countries.

Table 3

The consumption of absolute alcohol in liters per person per year in different countries (1990 – 2005 years)

Year

Ukraine

Slovakia

Finland

Canada

Norway

2005

8,50

11,00

9,95

7,80

6,37

2004

7,78

10,10

8,89

7,80

6,22

2003

8,03

9,90

9,30

7,70

6,03

2002

8,38

10,80

9,24

7,70

5,89

2001

7,42

10,73

8,95

7,70

5,49

2000

7,05

11,06

8,59

7,60

5,66

1999

3,93

10,14

8,62

7,50

5,45

1998

3,74

10,09

8,60

7,30

5,24

1997

3,98

10,81

8,56

7,20

5,28

1996

3,26

10,64

8,24

7,40

5,04

1995

3,72

10,34

8,31

7,30

4,79

1994

4,21

11,98

8,16

7,50

4,74

1993

5,47

11,02

8,39

7,50

4,55

1992

5,54

11,62

8,88

8,02

4,67

1991

5,86

12,33

9,22

8,28

4,90

1990

5,67

12,44

9,53

8,77

4,99


Source: WHO’s database (HFADB). [Electronic resource]. – Mode of access: http://data.euro.who.int/hfadb/profile/profile.php?w=1280&h=1024

If we take 2.4 liters, the average consumption of PAP according to the data of State Statistic Committee of Ukraine, as a basis, the level of crimes, which are committed under the influence of alcohol in Ukraine, should be lower than in Sweden, Norway, the UK and other countries. But we can observe the diametrically opposite tendency: crime in Ukraine exceeds the European indices. The regularity is coming from the analysis of the dynamics of the level consumption of PAP in Ukraine during 1990 – 2010: in periods of economic downturn and low purchasing power of the population, the consumption of alcohol was low, and, thus, the percentage of the crimes committed in a state of intoxication was also low. The increase in material welfare and the improvement of the economic situation of the country resulted in increasing the number of crimes committed in a state of alcohol intoxication (see Tables 1, 2 and 3).

5.67, 3.72 and 7.05 liters of PAP were consumed in 1990, 1995 and 2000 correspondingly in Ukraine according to WHO’s statistics [10]. 369.8, 641.9 and 567.8 thousand crimes was committed during these years, from which 43,6%, 28,4 and 23,9% – under the influence of alcohol. The level of alcohol consumption in Ukraine is growing since 2001 and until now. In particular, 8.38 liters of alcohol were consumed and 460.4 thousand crimes were committed, from which 23,8 % from the total number of prisoners were committed crime in a state of alcohol intoxication in 2002. In 2003 the level of PAP was 8.30 liters, and 566.4 thousand crimes were committed from which 24.4% – under the influence of alcohol. During 2004, 2005 and 2008 7.78 liters, 8.50 and 17.4 liters of absolute alcohol per capita were consumed, 527.8, 481.8 and 408.2 thousand crimes were committed from which 26.0%, 25.6 and 26.7% – in a state of alcohol intoxication (within 20 years, this number was near 27.6%) [6, p. 498]. During the first period (1990 – 2000) the level of consumption of PAP was lower than in the second period (2000  2010), thus, the number of crimes committed in a state of alcohol intoxication was lower during the first period. Therefore, we can assert that the level of consumption of PAP was not always determined by the overall crime rate during 1990 – 2010, but the increase in consumption of alcoholic substances in Ukraine led to the growth of crimes committed under the influence of these chemicals.

The comparative analysis of crime, injuries, accidents and violence, which are associated with the effect of alcohol in Europe and Ukraine in 2000, gives the reason to assert that in the European region the percentage of the problems which are mentioned above, are almost three times lower than in our country (see Table 4). First of all this is due to the orientation of European countries to the national programs for prevention of the consumption of alcohol. 15,6 thousand of traumatism from 1000 thousand cases, in Europe (2002) were caused under the influence of alcohol; 4867 (31.1%) cases from this number are “unintentional injuries” and 1933 (12 , 4%) – “intentional injuries” [13, p. 7]. 2.4 thousand murders and 4.1 thousand serious personal injuries per 100 thousands of population was committed in Ukraine according to WHO. 27% from them are crimes committed in a state of alcohol intoxication and this is near 30 thousand of cases which shows the broad scale of problem [10].

Table 4

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