Практикум по развитию навыков чтения и перевода иностранный язык для специальности



Скачать 276.83 Kb.
Дата22.06.2019
Размер276.83 Kb.
ТипПрактикум

Государственное бюджетное профессиональное

образовательное учреждение

«Курганский технологический колледж

имени Героя Советского Союза Н.Я.Анфиногенова»



УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ – ПРАКТИКУМ

ПО РАЗВИТИЮ НАВЫКОВ ЧТЕНИЯ И ПЕРЕВОДА

ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК

для специальности



140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование

Курган 2015г.

Учебное пособие-практикум по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» для специальности.140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование / Авт-сост. Скипина О.Н. - Курган: ГБПОУ «КТК», 2015 -38 с.


Автор-составитель:

Скипина О.Н., преподаватель ГБПОУ «Курганский технологический колледж имени Героя Советского Союза Н.Я. Анфиногенова»







Рецензенты:

Показаньева Н.В., преподаватель ГБПОУ «Курганский технологический колледж имени Героя Советского Союза Н.Я. Анфиногенова»

Третьякова Е.Ф., преподаватель, председатель ЦМК ОГСЭ ГБПОУ «Курганский технологический колледж имени Героя Советского Союза Н.Я. Анфиногенова»


Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов и преподавателей технических средних специальных учебных заведений по специальности 140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование

.

© Скипина О.Н., 2015



© ГБПОУ «КТК», 2015
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Введение

4

Text 1Principles and definitions in air conditioning and

refrigerating



5

Text 2 Thermometers

7

Text 3 British thermal unit


9

Text 4 Vapour pressure


12

Text 5 Enthalpy

14

Text 6 Gas


16

Text 7 The Joule Thomson Еffect


18

Text 8 Boiling


20

Text 9 Refrigeration


22

Text 10 Frigistor


23

Text 11Atomic energy


26

Text 12 Nuclear power stations


26

Text 13 The use of solar energy (part 1)


27

Text 14 The use of solar energy (part 2)


28

Text 15 Renewable energy sources


28

VOCABULARY


30

Литература


38


ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Целью данного учебного пособия является развитие навыков работы с терминами по специальности.140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование

Содержание текстов способствует ассоциативному усвоению основных понятий в изучаемых параллельно спецдисциплинах.

Учебное пособие составлено в соответствии с рабочей программой по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» для ССУЗОВ технических специальностей.

В учебное пособие включены упражнения для развития навыков чтения, словообразования (терминообразования), упражнения множественного выбора, упражнения, способствующие лучшему усвоению профессиональных терминов.

Пособие снабжено словарем. При составлении пособия использовались общетехнические и специализированные словари, справочная литература по современному английскому языку, общетехнические тексты. Учебное пособие – практикум предназначено для практических занятий по английскому языку

Терминологический словарь содержит основные слова, встречающиеся в пособии в их контекстуальном значении, и имеет цель облегчить работу над переводом.


TEXT 1

PRINCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS IN AIR CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATING

(Принципы и определения кондиционирования воздуха и холодильной техники)


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

What is heat?

Heat is a form of energy and is due to the motion of the molecules of which all substances are composed. The effect of adding heat to a substance is simply to increase the speed at which its molecules move, and thereby their energy.



What is cold?

Cold is a rather vague term used to denote a comparative lack of heat.



What is temperature?

Temperature is a measure of the intensity of heat in a substance and of its ability to pass its heat into anything at a lower temperature than itself.



How is temperature measured?

It is done by taking advantage of one of two facts: firstly that the electrical resistance at the junction of two different metals (a thermocouple) varies according to the temperature, and secondly that the volume of a body varies with its temperature. In the first case a constant voltage is applied to the junction of the two metals, and the resulting current is measured with an ammeter calibrated in degrees of temperature; as the temperature at the junction varies, so will the current flowing and therefore the indicating hand on the dial of the instrument. The distance between the thermocouple and the indicator is immaterial, and this form of measurement is very suited to remote temperature reading.


1. Прочитайте слова, переведите их.

Energy, term, heat, motion, substance, molecules, temperature, measure, electric, resistance, thermocouple, voltage, resulting current, ammeter, calibrate, degree, to vary, indicating hand, dial, indicator, immaterial, reading.



2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующим русским словам и словосочетаниям:

- движение молекул

- электрический ток

- индикаторная стрелка

- градуированная шкала

- измерение сопротивления термопара

- результирующий ток

- недостаток (нехватка) тепла

- постоянное напряжение

- электрическое сопротивление

- показание температуры

- интенсивность тепла

- место соединения

- увеличить скорость



3. Прочитайте следующие предложения и переведите на русский язык:

1. Any substance is composed of molecules.

2. Term is a word denoting philosophical, technical and other definitions.

3. Thermocouple is the junction of two different metals

4. Temperature is a measure of the intensity of heat in a substance

5. Heat is a form of energy.

6. Energy is a form of existence of substance.

7. Indicator is a device with calibrated scale.

8. Ammeter is a device indicating strength of current.

9. Heat and cold are temperature characteristics.

10. Voltage is a value of electric current.

4. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. Whatisheat?

2. Ammeter is a device indicating temperature, isn’t it?

3. Temperature isn’t a measure of the intensity of heat in a substance, is it?

4. Is energy a form of existence of substance or temperature characteristics?

5. What is thermocouple?

6. Can we say that term is a word denoting philosophical, technical and other definitions?

7.Voltage is temperature characteristic, isn’t it?

8. What is voltage?

9. When do we use ammeter?

10. Thermocouple is a device with calibrated scale, isn’t it?
TEXT 2

THERMOMETERS (Термометры)
Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Most other thermometers take advantage of the fact that the volume of

a substance changes with temperature. Liquids, usually mercury or spirit, can be enclosed in a glass tube. The variation of volume with a temperature change is shown by an alteration in

he height of the liquid in the tube, which is itself marked with degrees of temperature.

The variation of volume with temperature is not the same with all materials and this fact is taken advantage of in the dial type of thermometer where the difference in expansion of the two parts of a bimetal strip results in a torque which can be used to operate the pointer on a circular dial. This is a principle used in the recording thermometer or thermograph.

What temperature scales are used?

Only two temperature scales are of importance, the Centigrade and the Fahrenheit.

On the former, the freezing point of water at atmospheric pressure is denoted by 0 °C and

its boiling point by 100 °C; there are therefore 100 Centigrade degrees between these two temperature levels. On the latter the freezing point is 32°F and the boiling point 212°F,

so that the difference between the two levels is 180°F. Hence a change of temperature

of 1°C is the same as a change of 1.8°F. To convert from °C to °F and vice versa

the following equations are used: °F = (9/5 x °C) + 32 and °C = (°F – 32) x 5/9.

These rules apply whether the temperature is above or below freezing but, of course,

a minus sign must be used below O°. Care must be taken when converting a temperature difference compared with an actual temperature. For instance, a temperature difference of, say, 9°F would be the same as a difference of 5°C, whereas an actual temperature of 9°F would be the same as – 12.8°C.
1.Прочитайте следующие интернациональные слова и переведите их:

thermometer, thermograph, scale, minus, bi-metal, expansion, mercury, tube, variation, alternation, Centigrade, Fahrenheit, actual, atmospheric, spirit.



2. Найдите равные по значению английские и русские слова:

a) заключать, приводить к, такой же, наоборот, знак, вращающий момент, диск (циферблата), полоса (лента), спирт, уравнение, жидкость, ртуть, объем, шкала.

б) sign, strip, volume, to enclose, torque, liquid, to result in, vice

versa, dial, equation, the same, mercury, scale, spirit.



3.Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу словами.

1. Measuring temperature we use two scales ... and ...

2. To make a thermometer we take liquids usually ... or ... enclosed

in a glass ...

3. The ... of volume of liquid depends on temperature change.

4. ... of a substance changes with temperature.

5. The freezing point of water at ... pressure is denoted by 0 °C.
TEXT 3

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (Британская тепловая единица (Btu)
Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Btu представляет собой количество теплоты, которое повышает

температуру 1 фунта воды на 1 ˚С

Запомните определение сочетаний:

Absolute temperature, latent heat, sensible heat, specific heat и единицы измерения тепла.



What is absolute temperature?

On the absolute temperature scale (which may be in either Centigrade or Fahrenheit degrees) 0°C represents the lowest attainable temperature at which the internal energy of all substances is zero. This temperature is – 273.1°C or – 459.6 °F; hence to convert Centigrade temperatures to °C absolute we add 273.1 and to convert Fahrenheit temperatures to °F absolute we add 459.6



What units are used for measuring heat?

The British thermal unit (Btu) is used by engineers in the UK and the USA; the calorie is used in scientific work and generally wherever the metric system is in use.

The Btu is the amount of heat which will raise the temperature of 1 lb of water by 1°C.

There are two calories: the small calorie, or gram me-calorie, which is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 grimmer of water by 1°C and the great calorie or Kilocalorie (Kcal) which is 1000 times as great, i.e. the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram (Kg) of water by 1°C.

A frigorie is exactly the name as the kilocalorie and is used by European writers to denote the power of removing heat possessed by a refrigerating plant.

1 Kcal = 3.968 Btu = 4.18 J. The joule (J) is the SI (international measure system) unit of heat, but it is not yet in general commercial use.



What is the latent heat of a substance?

The amount of heat which has to be added to unit weight of the substance to change its state from solid to liquid (latent heat of fusion)or from liquid to vapour (latent heat of vaporization).

It is used in overcoming intermolecular forces and no change in temperature results.

What is sensible heat?

It is heat which results in a change in temperature; when unit weight of a substance is heated by 1° the gain in sensible heat is equal to the specific heat 11.



What is specific heat?

The amount of heat that has to be added to a substance to produce a given rise in temperature varies according to the nature of the substance. The specific heat of a substance is the ratio of the amount of heat which will raise the temperature of a given weight of it by 1° to the amount of heat which will produce the same rise in temperature in the same weight of water.

It is independent of the temperature scale used.

By definition the specific heat of water itself is 1.


1. Прочитайте слова, переведите их.

Absolute, attainable, internal, zero, British thermal unit (Btu), calorie, metric, lb (pound), gramm calorie, kilocalorie (Kcal), figure, European, refrigerating plant, joule (J), commercial, weight, latent heat, fusion, vaporization, intermolecular, sensible heat, specific heat, nature.



1. Прочитайте словосочетания и переведите их.

Temperature – high temperature, low temperature, absolute temperature, attainable temperature, actual temperature, required temperature, Centigrade temperature, Fahrenheit temperature.

Calorie – small calorie, great calorie, gramm calorie, kilocalorie.

Unit – British thermal unit, unit of heat, plant unit, work unit.

Heat – specific heat, sensible heat, latent heat, heat exchange, heat

sink, heat energy.

Energy – heat energy, electric energy, wind energy, solar energy,

tidal energy, internal energy, atomic energy, kinetic energy, potential

energy, mechanical energy, nuclear energy.

3. Скажите по-английски:

Британская тепловая единица, фунт на фут, лошадиная сила, нуль градусов, международная система измерения, Цельсий, килокалория, шкала, скрытое тепло, явное тепло, удельное тепло (теплоемкость).



4. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is temperature?

2. What is absolute temperature?

3. What is heat?

4. What is the latent heat?

5. What is sensible heat?

6. What is specific heat?
TEXT 4

VAPOUR PRESSURE (Давление паров)
Прочитайте и переведите текст.

(Запомните разницу между super heated vapour и saturated vapour)

Every liquid produces a vapour as the molecules near its surface free themselves from the attraction of their neighbours and fly off into space. This vapour exerts pressure on any containing vessel and the amount of pressure exerted by the vapour of any particular liquid depends solely on the temperature of the liquid surface; the higher the 13 temperature,

the greater the pressure. For any liquid a graph can be drawn showing the relationship

between this vapour pressure and the temperature of the liquid surface.

How can gas be liquefied?

When heat is removed from a gas its temperature is lowered until it reaches a value

corresponding to the pressure (see above) after which further removal of heat liquefies the gas. Alternatively, an increase in pressure combined with removal of heat makes it possible to liquefy the gas without reducing its temperature.

What is superheated vapour?

It is vapour removed from contact with its liquid and at a temperature higher than that which corresponds to its pressure as indicated by the temperature-pressure-vapour relationship for that particular substance.



What is saturated vapour?

It is vapour whose temperature and pressure are in accordance with the temperature-vapour-pressure relationship for the particular substance.

Vapour in contact with its liquid is saturated.

What is the numerical relationship between heat units and units of mechanical work?

This can be expressed as follows:

1 Btu = 778 lb ft. Thus, for example, the energy given up by a

weight of 77.8 lb in falling 10 ft is sufficient to heat 1 lb of water

through 1F. Again, since a horsepower (hp) is the rate of production of

energy of an engine doing 33,000 lb ft of work per minute, 1 hp =

33.000/778 or 42.4 Btu/min and therefore 2,545 Btu/h. The kilowatt

(k w), (not kilowatt hour) is another unit of power and 1 kW = 1.34 hp or



    1. u/h. Further, 1 kcal = 4.18 J, and 1 J/s = 1 W.


1. Прочитайте слова, переведите их.

vapour, attraction, space, exert, contain, vessel, particular, graph,

relationship, remove, correspond, alternatively, indicate, saturate, rate,

power, pressure, kilowatt.



2. Прочитайте однокоренные слова и переведите их.

Vapour – vaporize – vaporization

Attract – attractive – attraction

Contain – container – containment

Correspond – correspondence – correspondent

Indicate – indicator – indication

Saturate – saturator – saturation

Power – powerful – powerless



3. Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу словами.

1. Every liquid produces ... (vapour, gas, fog).

2. For any liquid a ... can be drawn (table, picture, graph).

3. The higher the temperature of a liquid surface, the greater the

... (power, pressure, speed).

4. Vapour in contact with its liquid is ... (disappeared, saturated, overheated).

5. The rate of production of energy is ... (voltage, resistance, horsepower).

6. The kilowatt is another unit of ... (weight, velocity, power).



4. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What does every liquid produce?

2. What is saturated vapour?

3. What is superheated vapour?


TEXT 5

ENTHALPY (Энтальпия)
Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Запомните:

– thermodynamics is a science of the relations between heat and mechanical work;

- press compress means together get into a small(er) space.

What is enthalpy?

This is a term that is often used in thermodynamic calculations. Enthalpy is the same as heat content, or the amount of heat contained in unit weight of a substance. It is measured from some arbitrarily chosen condition taken as zero. This is not strictly correct and it is accurately defined by the equation: H = I + PV/J, where H = enthalpy, I = internal (molecular) energy, P = absolute pressure, V = volume, J – is the factor to convert heat units to work units.

It can be shown mathematically that if heat is added to or taken from a substance, the change in enthalpy equals the amount of heat added or removed, provided that the pressure remains unchanged. Again, it can be shown that the increase in enthalpy during adiabatic compression is equivalent to the work done in compression.

What is entropy?

Change of entropy, which is the only thing that concerns us in thermodynamics, is equal to the amount of heat added or removed during a reversible process, divided by the absolute temperature; if the temperature changes during the process, as it does in the case of sensible heat, the entropy change must be evaluated by dividing the process into so many small steps that the temperature may be considered constant for each step, and adding the results (integration).



What is adiabatic compression?

When a gas or vapour is compressed in such circumstances that there is insufficient time for any substantial exchange of heat between it and its surroundings, the compression is adiabatic. It can be shown that during such a process there is no change in entropy and it is mainly this fact that makes the conception of entropy so useful. The compression of vapour in a refrigerating compressor is nearly adiabatic unless a water jacket is fitted.


1.Прочитайте слова, переведите их.

enthalpy, thermodynamic(s), calculation, equation, volume, provide, adiabatic, compression, entropy, reversible, evaluate, step, constant, integration, circumstances, insufficient, substantial, exchange, surroundings, conception, jacket, fit.



2. Переведите на английский язык.

1. ... именно этот факт делает условие энтропии полезным.

2. ... пока не будет устроена водяная рубашка.

3. ... отсутствует изменение в энтропии ...

4. Можно математически доказать, что если добавить тепло веществу или лишить его тепла, ...

5. ... рост энтальпии при адиабатическом сжатии равняется работе, выполняемой при сжатии.



3. Закончите следующие предложения:

1. The increase in enthalpy during adiabatic compression is equivalent …

2. Enthalpy is the same …

3. Change of entropy is equal to …

4. The compression is adiabatic when …

5. The compression of vapour in a refrigerating compressor



4. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is thermodynamics?

2. What is enthalpy?

3. What is entropy?

4. What is adiabatic compression?

TEXT 6

GAS
Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Запомните:

– gas is a kind of air like substance (used chiefly of those that do

not become liquid or solid at ordinary temperatures);

– vapour (steam mist) – gaseous form to which certain substances may be reduced by heat.



What is a perfect gas?

It is one which behaves in accordance with the gas law,

PV = MRT, where P = absolute pressure, V = volume, M = mass,

T = absolute temperature, and R is a constant for the particular gas depending on its molecular weight.

The volume is directly proportional to the temperature and in aversely proportional to the pressure. Oxygen, nitrogen, air and hydrogen are examples of gases which are almost perfect at moderate temperatures and pressures. The gases commonly used in refrigeration are not perfect under normal operating conditions. With the exception of carbon dioxide, their deviations from the gas law are not great at the temperatures and pressures normally prevailing in the low pressure side of a vapour compression refrigerating plant.

What is the difference between gas and vapour?

The gaseous substance in contact with the liquid from which it is formed is known as a vapour and it is still called a vapour if superheated to some extent. At still higher temperatures it is known as a gas but there is no sharp line of demarcation.



What is critical temperature?

Although in general a vapour may be liquefied by increasing its pressure up to the saturation value corresponding to the temperature, this is not so if the temperature is above a certain level. For any vapour this temperature above which no pressure will produce liquefaction, is

called its critical temperature.

What is critical pressure?

The critical pressure of a vapour is the pressure required to liquefy it at the critical temperature and is the highest pressure on the temperature – pressure graph for saturated vapour.

At temperatures above critical the pressure exerted by a vapour depends on the weight of

it in a given space.


1. Прочитайте слова, переведите их.

proportional, inversely proportional, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen,

moderate, refrigeration, carbon dioxide, deviation, prevailing, gaseous,

superheated, demarcation, saturated, exerted, condition, liquid, pressure.



2. Из данных слов составьте словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык:

1) temperature – critical, moderate, absolute, ground, indoor;

2) gas – refrigerated, superheated, liquefied, city, dry, fuel;

3) proportional – directly, inversely, mean;

4) steam – dead, gaseous, dry, direct, waste.

3. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is gas?

2. What is a perfect gas?

3. What is the difference between gas and vapour?

4. What is critical temperature?

5. What is critical pressure


TEXT 7

THE JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT (Эффект Джоуля-Томсона)
Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Запомните:

– combustion is a process of burning; destruction by fire;

– resist means oppose; use force against in order to prevent the

advance of.



What is the Joule-Thomson effect?

If a perfect gas is allowed to expand freely, without doing work (e.g. through a throttle valve) there is no change in its temperature. In practice, however, the temperature changes slightly, because work is done by or against the intermolecular forces. This change, known as the

Joule-Thomson effect, may be a rise or fall. In the case of air and similar gases at high pressures and low temperatures it is a fall. This fact is used in the laboratory for the production of extremely low temperatures.

What are the principal ways in which heat is produced?

The sun provides the earth with a continuous supply of heat. Many chemical reactions result in the formation of molecules which have a smaller store of heat energy than those from which they were produced, the difference is transferred to the surroundings which are thereby heated. Combustion is the most important case of such a chemical change.

In human beings, animals, plants and even vegetables and fruits after gathering, a kind of slow combustion is always in progress, so that these also are sources of heat.

Whenever two substances are in contact and one moves relatively to the other, the energy which has to be expended in producing the movement, that is to say in overcoming frictional resistance, appears a heat. Thus pumping water through a pipe, or circulating air through a duct by means of a fan, or driving a machine of any kind, are all processes in which the energy expended is converted into heat. The compression of gas produces heat because the piston or other moving surface which pushes the molecules of gas forward “speeds them up”.

Whenever an electric current flows, the electrical energy appears as heat directly, as in the case of an electric heater or lamp, or part of it does so while the rest is converted into mechanical power and so ultimately into heat, as in the electric motor.
1.Прочитайте слова, переведите их.

Throttle, valve, intermolecular, Joule-Thomson effect, extremely, supply, result in, store, combustion, source, relatively, expend, frictional, resistance, pump, pipe, circulating, whenever, compression, molecule.



2. Из указанного ниже списка слов выберите термины и переведите их на русский язык:

paper, valve, supper, stroke, combination, combustion, expense,

expand, wave, volume, surface, resistance, substance, contact, water, compression.

3. Закончите предложения и переведите их на русский язык

1. The pressure will fall with the temperature in accordance with the...

2. Any further reduction in temperature...

3. In practice, the temperature changes ...

4. This fact is used in the laboratory ...

5. Combustion is the most important case ...

6. The sun provides the earth with ...

7. Pumping water, driving machine of any kind and etc. are all the processes ...



4. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. На практике, однако, температура незначительно меняется, так как совершается работа межмолекулярными силами или против них.

2. Этот факт используется для получения крайне низких температур в лабораторных условиях.

3. Это изменение, известное как эффект Джоуля-Томсона, сопровождается повышением или понижением температуры.



5. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is combustion?

2. What does resist mean?

3. What is the Joule – Thomson effect?

4. What does the compression of gas produce and why?
TEXT 8

BOILING (Кипение)
Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Запомните:

boiling – the process at which change to gas occurs; bubble up.



What is boiling point?

When a liquid contained in a vessel having an opening to permit the exit of vapour is heated, its vapour pressure rises and eventually reaches that of the surrounding atmosphere. When this happens, the liquid boils and the temperature at which it does so is known as the boiling point for that particular pressure. It is therefore the temperature at which the saturation pressure of the vapour equals that of the atmosphere. When the liquid is in a closed vessel or system in contact only with its own vapour, the term boiling point is not very appropriate. It is preferable to speak of the saturation temperature, which is the temperature of the liquid surface corresponding to the pressure of the vapour in contact with it.



What happens to a gas which is allowed to expand in an engine cylinder?

Conversely to the compression of a gas, the work done by an expanding gas is produced at the expense of the heat contained in the gas, which therefore falls in temperature.



What is the triple point?

If a closed vessel containing only a pure liquid and its vapour is cooled, the pressure will fall with the temperature in accordance with the pressure – temperature curve for saturated vapour (curve CP, fig.1).A temperature will be reached at which the liquid begins to freeze.

Any further reduction in temperature will cause the transformation of the liquid into solid.

This temperature and its corresponding pressure are known as the triple point for the particular substance. Only at this temperature and pressure can the substance exist simultaneously in solid, liquid and vapour forms.


1. Прочитайте слова, переведите их.

contained, opening, eventually, surrounding, appropriate, prefer able, conversely, expanding, pure, triple, point, exist, simultaneously,

curve, temperature, pressure, substance, transformation, corresponding.

2. Составьте предложения из следующих слов.

1. Curve, in accordance with, the pressure, the pressure temperature, for, will, the temperature, fall, vapour, saturated, with.

2. Contained, the work, gas, done, is at, the expense, by, an, expanding, of , the, in, the, gas, produced, heat.

3. Saturation, the, is, the surface, to, the, of, the, in, vapour, with, it,

corresponding, temperature, temperature, liquid, pressure, contact, of, the.

3. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is boiling point?

2. When does liquid boil?

3. What happens to a gas which is allowed to expand in an engine cylinder?

4. What is a triple point?

5. What will cause any further reduction in temperature?

6. When can the substance exist simultaneously in solid, liquid and vapour forms?
TEXT 9

REFRIGERATION (Охлаждение)
Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Запомните определение термина refrigeration.

Refrigeration is the transfer of heat from a substance to be cooled to somewhere else. As heat flows naturally from any body into any other colder body with which it is in contact, refrigeration is simple when a supply of some suitable colder substance is available. For xample, fish can be cooled by packing ice around them. Where a suitable colder substance is not available then one has to be produced, a complicated procedure involving the expenditure of energy: it is a process of this kind that is usually implied when the term refrigeration is used.

Nearly all refrigerating plants utilize the lowering of temperature which results from the controlled evaporation of a liquefied gas. When only small refrigerating effects are required they can be obtained by the direct application of electricity through a suitable thermocouple. How does such a thermocouple operate?

In its simplest form a thermoelectric cooling device consists of pairs of semiconductor blocks connected in series and arranged as a sandwich, one face of which becomes hot and the other cold when a suitable direct current is applied. Therefore in effect, heat is taken from one side and discharged on the other an ample heat sink being provided for its removal.



What is a heat sink?

A heat sink is a means for disposing of unwanted heat, usually by using it to increase the temperature of water, which is then run to waste.


1. Прочитайте слова, переведите их.

Piston, to push, heater, ultimately, refrigeration, to transfer, expenditure, to imply, refrigerating plant, to result from, controlled evaporation, thermocouple, device, semiconductor block, in series, face, direct, current, in effect, to discharge, sink.



2. Закончите предложения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. Fish can be cooled …

2. Refrigeration is the transfer …

3. Heat is taken from one side and …

4. A heat sink is a …

3. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What does the compression of gas produce?

2. What is refrigeration?

3. How do all refrigerating plants operate?

4. How does a thermocouple operate?
TEXT 10

FRIGISTOR
Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Frigistor is simply the trade name to a thermo-cooling device manufactured by one particular manufacturer.



What are the advantages of thermoelectric cooling?

The device is small in size: a 15 A unit typically measuring less than 1 in. square x ¼ in. thick (25 mm x 6 mm).Because of their small size they are very suited to the small refrigerating effects often required in electronics, in instrumentation and for some medical purposes.

They can produce very low temperatures: -130 F (-90 C), and lower in some circumstances. Thermoelectric cooling is at the moment only viable, from the economic standpoint, in the smaller powers al- though this position will improve as their use increases enabling manufacturing costs to be reduced.

How is the evaporation of a liquid used to produce cold?

A liquefied gas is allowed to vaporize through a controllable nozzle in such a way that the latent heat of vaporization is taken from the substance to be cooled.



How is this accomplished?

In the simplest equipment the liquefied gas is allowed to discharge at a controlled rate through spray nozzles situated in the space to be cooled. It follows that the gas used must be inexpensive (since it is discharged to waste), free from corrosive or toxic effects, non-inflammable and have as high a latent heat as possible.

Nitrogen is the gas most commonly used with this system which has advantages where fairly short period of refrigeration is required, as in transport or overnight storage. The principle is also used in one form of in-line deep freeze equipment except that in this application means are usually provided for the recovery and reliquefaction of the gas used.

The use of liquid nitrogen for refrigeration is increasing, but the most common method of large scale and small scale refrigeration is where the gas used does not come into actual contact with the substance to be cooled and in which the gas is recompressed and again liquefied for re-use.



How can this be done?

By using one of two systems:

1. The vapour compression system.

2. The absorption system.



1.Прочитайте слова, переведите их.

Disposing, unwanted, waste, trade name, thermo cooling, unit,

in square, electronics, instrumentation, viable, vaporize, nozzle, equipment, spray, corrosive, toxic, noninflammable, in-line, means, recovery,

reliquefaction, recompressed.



2. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения и словосочетания:

1. Теплоотвод представляет собой способ удаления нежелательной теплоты, ...

2. Фригистор – просто торговая марка, присвоенная термоохлаждающему устройству, ...

3. ... часто требующихся в электронике, контрольно измерительных приборах, ...

4. Они могут производить очень низкие температуры.

5. Термоэлектрическое охлаждение в настоящий момент не рентабельно с экономической точки зрения только при малой мощности, ....



3. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. How is the evaporation of a liquid used to produce cold?

2. How can this be done?

3. How can we produce cold?

4. What gas is commonly used where short period of refrigeration is required?

5. What does corrode mean?

6. What does corrosion mean?

7. What is a frigistor?

8. What are the advantages of thermoelectric cooling?
Тексты для дополнительного чтения.
Text 11

Atomic energy (Атомная энергия)
Прочитайте и переведите текст.

1. A man that tries to see a single atom as like a man trying to see a single drop of water in the sea. He will see the sea made of great many drops of water but he will not be able to see a single drop. Man has, however, learned the secret of the atom. He has learned to split atoms in order to get great quantity of energy. At present, coal is one of the most important fuels and our basic source of energy. It is quite possible that some day coal and other fuel may be replaced by atomic energy.

2. The nuclear reactor is one of the most reliable “furnaces” that produce atomic energy. When reactor produces energy it produces energy in the form of heat. In other words. When atoms split in the reactor heat is developed. Gas, water, melted metals and some other liquids circulate through the reactor to carry that heat away. The heat may be carried to pipes of the steam generator that contains water. The steam drives a turbine; the turbine in its turn drives an electric generator. So we see that a nuclear power-station is like any other power-station but the familiar coal-burning furnace is replaced by a nuclear one.
Text 12

Nuclear power stations (Атомные электростанции)
Прочитайте и переведите текст.

1. The first industrial nuclear power station in the world was constructed in Obninsk not far from Moscow in 1954. The station was put into operation two years earlier than the British one and three and a half years earlier that the American nuclear power-stations.

2. A number of nuclear power-stations have been put into operation since 1954. The Beloyarskaya nuclear power station named after academician Kurchatov may serve an example of the peaceful use of atomic energy. The scientists and engineers achieved a nuclear superheating of steam directly in the reactor itself before steam is carried into the turbine. It is certainly an important contribution to nuclear engineering achieved for the first time in the world.

3. We might mention here another important achievement that is the first nuclear installation where thermal energy generated in the reactor is transformed directly into electrical energy. Speaking of the peaceful use of atomic energy it is also necessary to mention our nuclear ice-breakers. “Lenin” is the world’s first icebreaker with nuclear installation. Its machine installation is of a steam turbine type and steam is produced by three reactors and six stream generators.


Text 13

The use of solar energy (Использование солнечной энергии)

(part 1)
Прочитайте и переведите текст.

1. One of the uses of solar energy is its transformation into electric energy. Photoelectric converters operate not only aboard space vehicles (космические корабли). They are used to supply hard-to-reach (труднодоступный) sites, for instance, light-houses (маяки), communication facilities (средства связи), etc with electric power. Such installations can operate continuously for 20 years, and their capacity is up to 500 watts. They are reliable and do not need constantly handling by personal.

2. At present, mainly semiconductor silicon is used for the manufacture of photocells. Now the researchers have designed photocells on the basis of linking two materials in a single crystal-gallium arsenide and aluminum arsenide. They are most promising for the transformation of preliminary concentrated light since they continue to operate efficiently at temperature of over 200˚ C. Using heat that is released in photocells one can raise the efficiency up to 30%. Their use in solar power station will greatly cut the cost of the photoelectric method of energy transformation.


Text 14

The use of solar energy

(part 2)


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

1. The problem of wider uses of renewable energy sources – solar, tidal and geothermal ones is of great local importance. I or far (пока что) the practical use pf solar energy is not very significant but the use of this energy can be profitable in many areas even now. Specialists designed water-heating installations for both - 14 - seasonable and year-round operation.

They have already built solar-powered homes and public buildings with hot water supply, heating and air-conditioning. Within the next few years experimental constructions will go on. After tests the best solutions will be used in standard designs.

2. The application of solar installations in agriculture has considerable effect. The experience in experimental solar-heating greenhouses (теплица) has shown that, as compared with ordinary greenhouses that receive heat from boiler rooms, the expenses on vegetable-growing are reduced by 60% due to fuel savings alone. Solar-powered installations for drying farm products were also tested successfully.


Text 15

Renewable energy sources

(Возобновляемые источники энергии)


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

1. In the future the energy of the sun, wind, sea and the heat of underground waters will be used on a large scale. These are the so-called “free” energy sources. They will be utilized only when they are more profitable than the traditional ones, because their exploitation is usually much more expensive than energy supply from large electric power stations which run on coal or nuclear fuel.

2. The utilization of the biomass – agricultural wastes and city runoff – can be found very effective: they can be employed in obtaining gas.

3. In addition it may happen that new energy sources will be discovered. What if, for example, the vacuum is a boundless ocean of matter in some specific state? Perhaps in the future man will discover some ways of getting energy from this matter? Or, for example, the undiscovered cosmic forces. Or the annihilation energy which arises from the fusion of matter and anti-matter.

4. Now this is fantasy which may become a reality. Unknown and undiscovered phenomena can be found more effective, than familiar ones.

VOCABULARY

A

A = ampere – ампер

absolute–абсолютный

actual – фактический

adiabatic compression– адиабатическое сжатие

alteration– изменение

alternativel – в другом случае, наоборот

ammeter– амперметрappropriate– правильный, подходящий

arbitrarily– произвольно, свободно

atmospheriс– атмосферный

attainable– достигаемый

attract – притягивать



B

behave– вести себя

bi-metal – биметалл

British thermal unit Btu – Британская тепловая единица

Btu/h = British thermal units per hour – Британские тепловые единицы в час

Btu/ min = British thermal units per minute – Британские тепловые единицы в минуту



С

calibrate – калиброватьcalorie– калория

carbon dioxide – двуокись углерода

Сenti grade – стоградусная шкала (Цельсий)

сircular– круговой, кольцевой

сirculate– циркулировать

сircumstances – условия

сombustion– горение, сгорание

commercial – практическийconception – понятие

constant – постоянный

contain – содержать, охватывать, помещать

containing vessel – сосуд

content – емкость, содержание

controllablen ozzle– регулируемое сопло

controlled evaporation – регулируемое испарение

conversely (to) – противоположно

convert – переводить (в другую систему единиц)

corresponding to– соответственно, в соответствии с

corrosive – коррозионный

curve– кривая



D

definition – определение

demarcation – разграничение

deviation – отклонение

device – устройство

dial – шкала

direct current – постоянный ток

discharge – выделять, выходить

dispose – удалять

E

In effect – фактически, по существу

e.g. – for example = например

electronics – электроника

enclose – поместить

energy – энергия

enthalpy – энтальпия

entropy – энтропия

eguation – уравнение

equipment – установки, оборудование

European – европейский

evaluate – оценивать, определять

eventually – в конце концов

exchange – обмен

exert pressure – оказывать давление

exist – существовать, иметься

exit – выход

expanding gas–расширяющийся газ

expend – истратить

expenditure – затрата

extremely – чрезвычайно, крайне

F

face – поверхность

Fahrenheit – шкала Фаренгейта

fit– устраивать, устанавливать

frictional resistance – сопротивление трения

frigorie – фригория

ft = foot (pl. feet) – фут (30.48 см)

fusion – плавление



G

gaseous – газообразный

gramm-calorie– грамм калория

graph – диаграмм



H

heater – обогреватель, подогреватель

hp=horsepower – (английская) лошадиная сила

(I.0I4 л.с.)

human being – человек

hydrogen – водород



I

immaterial – незначительный

indicate – указывать

indicating hand – стрелка, указатель

indicator – измерительный прибор

in-line – неавтономный

in.square – квадрат со стороной в 1 дюйм

insufficient – недостаточный

instrumentation – контрольно-измерительные приборы

integration – интегрирование

intermolecular – межмолекулярный

internal – внутренний

inversely proportional – обратно пропорциональный

J

jacket – рубашка

joule – джоуль

junction – место соединения



K

kilocalorie – килокалория

kilowatt – киловатт

L

Latent heat – латентное (скрытое) тепло

lb. = pound – фунт

l bf = pound per foot = фунт на фут

liquefy –сжимать

liquid – жидкость, жидкая фаза

lower – снижать

M

means – способы, средства

measure – измерение, мера, определять, измерять

measurement – измерение, определение

mercury – ртуть

metric – метрический

minus sign – знак минус

moderate – умеренный

molecular – молекулярный

N

nature – свойства, характеристика

nitrogen – азот

non-inflammable – невоспламеняемый

numerical – численный

O

opening – отверстие

operating conditions– рабочие (эксплуатационные) условия

oxygen– кислород



P

particular – данный, конкретный

perfect gas – идеальный газ

pipe – труба

piston – поршень

plant – растение, установка

pointer – стрелка, указатель

power – мощность

preferable – предпочтительный

prevailing – преобладающий

proportional – пропорциональный

provided – при условии

pump v. – качать, n. – насос

pure – чистый

push – толкать

R

ratio – пропорция, отношение

rate – скорость, темп

reading – считывание, измерение

recompress – повторно сжимать

recovery – утилизация

refrigerating plant – холодильная установка

refrigeration – охлаждение, замораживание

relationship – связь, зависимость

relatively (to) – по отношению (к)

reliquefaction – повторное сжижение

remove – удалять

removing – удаление

resistance – сопротивление

result from– появляться, вытекать из

resultin – создавать, приводить к, дать

resulting – созданный, появляющийся

reversible – обратимый

run to waste – сбрасывать

S

sandwich – слоистый материал (конструкция)

saturate – насыщать

scale – шкала

semiconductor block – блок полупроводников

sensible heat – явное тепло

series – последовательное соединение

SI – СИ – международная система измерений

simultaneously – одновременно

sink – теплоотвод

source – источник

space – пространство

specific heat – удельное тепло, удельная теплоемкость

spirit – спирт

spray nozzle – распыляющая форсунка (сопло)

step – этап, шаг

storage – хранение

store – запас

strip – лента

substantial – значительный, существенный

superheat – перегревать

supply – подача, снабжение

surrounding – окружающий

surroundings – окружающая среда



T

term – термин, название

thermal – термический, тепловой

thermo-cooling – термоохлаждение

thermocouple – термопара, термоэлемент

thermodynamic – термодинамический – s –термодинамика

thermograph – термограф

thermometer – термометр

throttlevalve – дросель -клапан

torcue – скручивание, вращающий момент

toxic – ядовитый

trade name – торговая марка

transfer of heat – передача тепла, теплоотдача

triple point ['tripl 'point] – тройная точка

tube – трубка

typically – обычно



U

ultimately – окончательно, наконец

unit– блок, устройство, единица

unitweight – одна единица веса

unwanted – ненужный, нежелательный

V

value – значение, уровень

vaporize – испаряться

vaporization – испарение

vapour – пар

variation – изменение

viable – выгодный, рентабельный

viceversa – и наоборот

voltage – напряжение

volume – объем



Z

Zero – нуль; Oo= zero degrees – нуль градусов



ЛИТЕРАТУРА
1. Чернявская Л.Ф. Английский язык. Теплотехника. Учебное пособие 
Федеральное агентство по образованию ГОУ ВПО «Братский государственный университет» - Братск: 2009. - 71 с

2. Principles and Definitions in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating. Сборник текстов на английском языке. – Рига: Политехнический институт, 1983.

3. Парахина А.В, Чернухин А.Е., Учебник английского языка для вечерних и заочных средних специальных учебных заведений. Издательство «Высшая школа» 1973.

5. Бгашев В.Н.

Терминология машиностроения: Краткий англо-русский словарь-справочник /В.Н. Бгашев, Е.Ю. Долматовская. – М.: ООО «Издательство Астрель»: ООО «Издательство АСТ»: ООО «Транзиткнига», 20004, [192]c.: ил.4.

6. Мюллер В.К. Новый большой англо-русский словарь / В.К. Мюллер. – М.: «Альта-Принт», 2006. – 864 с.

Электронные ресурсы:

7 http://www.twirpx.com/file/985889/



8 http://www.twirpx.com/file
Каталог: upload -> 2015
2015 -> Загрузка приставки зависает на надписи “Eltex” (рис. 2)
2015 -> «профилактика пролежней»
2015 -> Методическое указания по дисциплине «Заповедное дело»
2015 -> Учебное пособие по английскому языку «Профессиональная медицинская лексика»
2015 -> Методические рекомендации для самостоятельной работы студентов
2015 -> Методические рекомендации по кейс-методу. Достоинством пособия является наличие примеров готовых кейсов по дисциплинам история и обществознание
2015 -> Методическое пособие по теории алгоритмов структуры данных специальность 09. 02. 03
2015 -> Пломбировочные материалы


Поделитесь с Вашими друзьями:


База данных защищена авторским правом ©vossta.ru 2019
обратиться к администрации

    Главная страница