Рабочая программа дисциплины « В. Од. 9» «Стилистика» Направление подготовки : 44. 03. 01 Педагогическое образование


Anaphora is when the repeated word (or phrase) comes at the beginning of two or more consecutive sentences, clauses or phrases. Epiphora



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Anaphora is when the repeated word (or phrase) comes at the beginning of two or more consecutive sentences, clauses or phrases.

Epiphora is when the repeated unit is placed at the end of consecutive sentences, clauses or phrases.

Anadiplosis is structured so that the last word or phrase of one part of one part of an utterance is repeated at the beginning of the next part, thus hooking the two parts together.

Framing is an arrangement of repetition in which the initial parts of a syntactical unit, in most cases of a paragraph, are repeated at the end of it.

Enumeration is a stylistic device by which separate things, objects, phenomena, actions are named one by one so that they produce a chain, the links of which are forced to display some kind of semantic homogeneity, remote though it may seem.

E.g.: «Scrooge was his sole executor, his sole administrator, his sole assign, his sole residuary legatee, his sole friend and his sole mourner. (Dickens)



Suspense is arranging the matter of a communication in such a way that the less important, subordinate parts are amassed at the beginning, the main idea being withheld till the end of the sentence. Thus the reader's attention is held and his interest is kept up.

E.g.: «Mankind, says a Chinese manuscript, which my friend M. Was obliging enough to read and explain to me, for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw». (Charles Lamb)



Climax (Gradation) is an arrangement of sentences (or homogeneous parts of one sentence) which secures a gradual increase in significance, importance, or emotional tension in the utterance.

E.g.: «Little by little, bit by bit, and day by day, and year by year the baron got the worst of some disputed question». (Dickens)



Anticlimax is an arrangement of ideas in ascending order of significance,or they may be poetical or elevated, but the final one, which the reader expects to be the culminating one, as in climax, is trifling or farcical. There is a sudden drop from the lofty or serious to the ridiculous.

E.g.: «This war-like speech, received with many a cheer, Had filled them with desire of flame, and beer». (Byron)



Antithesis is based on relative opposition which arises out of the context through the expansion of objectively contrasting pairs.

E.g.: «A saint abroad, and a devil at home». (Bunyan) «Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven». (Milton)

Antithesis is a structure consisting of two steps, the lexical meanings of which are opposite to each other.

E.g.: In marriage the upkeep of a woman is often the downfall of a man.



Asyndeton is a connection between parts of a sentence or between sentences without any formal sign, the connective being deliberately omitted.

E.g.: «Soames turned away; he had an utter disinclination for talk, like one standing before an open grave, watching a coffin slowly lowered». (Galsworthy)



Polysyndeton is the connection of sentences, or phrases, or syntagms, or words by using connectives (mostly conjunctions and prepositions) before each component part.

E.g.: «The heaviest rain, and snow, and hail, and sleet, could boast of the advantage over him in only one respect». (Dickens)

Ellipsis imitates the common features of colloquial language, where the situation predetermines not the omission of certain members of the sentence, but their absence.

E.g.: «Nothing so difficult as the beginning». (Byron)



Inversion is broken word order.

E.g.: Into a singularly restricted and indifferent environment Ida Zobel was born.



Break-in-the-Narrative (Aposiopesis) is a break in the narrative used for some stylistic effect.

E.g.: «You just come home or I'll...»



Litotes is a peculiar use of negative constructions aimed at establishing a positive feature in a person or thing.

E.g.: «He was not without taste ...» «It troubled him not a little ...»





  1. Тестовые задания


Тест для итогового контроля знаний студентов

1. Choose the sentence which contains SD called oxymoron.

  1. The rich arrived in pairs and in Rolls Royces.

  2. He was magnificently imbecile.

  1. Down dropped the breeze.

  2. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times…

2. Identify SD in the following passage: "You look as if your name was Ernest. You are the most earnest-looking person I ever saw in my life".

a) tautology

b) zeugma

c) apokoinu construction

d) pun

3. Choose the definition for 'climax':


  1. deliberate omission of one or more parts of the sentence.

  2. an arrangement of sentences (or of the homogeneous parts of one sentence) which secures a gradual increase in emotional tension in the utterance.

  3. the statement in the form of a question which presupposes the possible (though not demanded) answer.

  4. an arrangement of the homogeneous parts of one sentence where appears a weak or contrastive element that makes the statement humorous.

4. Choose the right SD for the model a ..., a..., a... .

  1. anaphora

  2. epiphora

  3. framing

  4. anadiplosis

5. Choose the SD which belongs to the group of lexical SD.

a) chiasmus

b) simile

c) euphony

d) oxymoron

6. Identify SD in the following example: "He would
make some money and then he would come back and marry
his dream from Blackwood".

a)metaphor

b) asyndeton

c) polysyndeton

d) periphrasis
7. Identify ‘framing' in these examples of repetition:


  1. Failure meant poverty, poverty meant squalor, squalor led ... to the smell and stagnation of B. Inn Alley.

  2. She unchained, unbolted, and unlooked one door.

с) Не ran away from the battle. He was an ordinary human being that didn't want to kill or be killed, so he ran away from the battle.

d) Three fishers went sailing out in the west. Out into the west, as the sun went down.



8. Choose the SD which is a periphrasis:

  1. I took my obedient feet away from him.

  2. The villages were full of women who did nothing but fight against dirt and hunger and repair the effects of friction on clothes.

  3. I didn't dislike Mr. Kelada.

  4. A thing of beauty is a joy forever.

9. Identify SD in the following passage: "It rained
during the US-USSR match at summit level in Moscow. But
it not only rain, it rained records”.

a) understatement

b) antonomasia

c)pun


d) periphrasis

10. Choose the SD which belongs to syntactical SD:

  1. antonomasia;

  2. assonance;

  3. alliteration;

  4. anadiplosis.

11. Identify SD in the following example: "One of my
partners is a liar and a cheat and a thief".

a)hyperbole

b) simile

c) gradation

d) bathos

12. Identify 'allusion' with its definition:


  1. applying the name of an object to another object that is in some way connected with the first.

  2. expressive renaming on the basis of similarity of two objects.

  3. attributing human properties to lifeless objects.

  4. brief reference to some literary or historical event commonly known.

13. Identify SD in thefollowing sentence: "It's 9:45
o'clock, and not a single picture hat or piece of
pineapple chewing gum has showed up yet".

a)metonymy

b) gradation

c) apokoinu construction

d) metaphor

14. Onomatopeia should be referred to

a)syntactical expressive means & SD;

b) phonetic expressive means & SD;

c) graphical expressive means & SD;

d) lexical expressive means & SD.

15. Antonomasia is a ... SD.

a) graphical; b)lexical; c)phonetical; d) syntactical.


16. Choose the definition for ‘allusion’

a) a SD based on analogy between two things, which are discovered to possess some features in common, otherwise being entirely dissimilar.

b) the use of a milder word or phrase instead of the one that seems rough, rude or unpleasant.

c) a reference to specific places, persons, literary characters, mythology and Bible.

d) a repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses.
17. Choose the example that contains zeugma:

a) It was an unanswerable reply.

b) Mr. Stiggins took his hat and his leave.

c) – Did you hit a woman with a child?

- No, sir. I hit her with a brick.

d) Welcome to Reno, the biggest little town in the world.


18.Choose the example that contains‘aposiopesis’.

a) And it was so unlikely that anyone would trouble to look there – until – until – well.

b) How could John, with his heart of gold, leave his family?

c) It was like who offered me this job.

d) I am sorry. I am so very sorry. I am so extremely sorry.
19. Identify expressive means in the following sentence

“What courage can withstand the everduring and all besething terrors of a woman’s tongue?”

a) rhetorical question

b) apokoinu construction

C) gradation

d) aposiopesis


20. What type of transfer is metaphor based…

a) on the principle of contrast or incompatibility

b) on the principle of affinity

c) on the principle of proximity

d) on the principle of contiguity.
21. Expressive means of a language can be found...

a) on phonetic level,


b) on lexical level,
c) on all levels,

d) on syntactical level.


22. Expressive means and stylistic devices have...

a) a lot in common,

b) nothing in common,

c) to be considered completely synonymous,

d) none of the mentioned above.
23. She is a real flower" is..

a) simile

b) comparison

c) metaphor

d) metonymy.

24. Metonymy is ...

a) a misuse of a word due to the wrong application of a term in a sense that does not belong to the word

b) a word or phrase used to describe someone or something with a purpose to praise or blame

c) substitution of one word for another on the basis of comparison

d) transfer of name of one object onto another to which it is related or of which it is a part
25. Identify “Litotes” in the following examples:

a) His fees were high; his lessons were light…

b) The machine sitting at the desk was no longer a man; it was a busy New York broker…

c) One after another those people lay down on the grass to laugh – and two of them died.

d) My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun.
26.The underlined word in the phrase “He is a big boy already” possesses:

a) evaluative connotation;

b) emotive connotation;

c) expressive connotation;

d) stylistic connotation.
27. Match the words to different layers of the vocabulary:

a) die, clothes, refuse; 1. colloquial;

b) decease, attire, decline; 2. neutral;

c) snuff out, rags, turn down; 3. bookish;


28. Match the SDs to their example:

a) oxymoron; 1. sweet sorrow;

b) epithet; 2. my better half;

c) periphrasis; 3. a fleet of fifty sails;

d) metonymy. 4. a killing news.
29. Match the SDs to their examples:

a) euphemism; 1. It is not bad;

b) oxymoron; 2. scared to death;

c) hyperbole; 3. the fair sex;

d) periphrasis. 4. correctional institution.
30. Match the SDs to the examples:

a) simile; 1. maiden are moths;

b) metaphor; 2. youth I lovely, age is lonely;

c) antithesis; 3. He is beautiful as a weathercock;

d) irony. 4. She turned with the sweet smile of an alligator.
31. Identity SD in the following example:

A hawk, serene, flows in the narrowing circles above.”

a) inversion;

b) detached construction;

c) asyndeton;

d) suspence.


32. Identify SD in the following example:

A smile would come into Mr. Pickwick’s face, the smile extended into a laugh, the laugh into a roar, and the roar became general ”:

a) epiphora;

b) chain-repetition

c) framing;

d) anadiplois.


33. Identify SD in the follow example:

I bring him news will raise his drooping spirits”:

a) gradation;

b) the gap-sentence link;

c) ellipsis;

d) aposiopesis.


34. Identify disguised tautology in the following examples:

a) Was that the woman like Napoleon the Great?

b) There are doctors and doctors;

c) We needed a kind rain, a blessing rain… We needed water.

d) No chitchat, please.
35. Present Continuous Tense expresses in the following example:

You are being very absurd, Laura, he said coldly”

a) impatience;

b) surprise, disapproval;

c) current emotional state or behaviour;

d) conviction.


36. What technique of decoding stylistics is observed in the following example:

Miss Fairfax, ever since I met you I have admired you more than any girl… I have met… since I met you.” (O. Wilde)

a) convergence;

b) coupling;

c) defeated expectancy;

d) semi-marked structures.


37. Match the examples of slang with figures speech they:

a) the upper storey (head); 1. understatement;

b) skirt (girl); 2. metaphor;

c) whistle (flute); 3. metonymy;

d) killing (astonishing). 4. hyperbole.
38. Find the example of a nonce-word:

a) He said, “That’s a hell of a note”;

b) There was a balconyful of gentlemen…

c) They put me in this little cell with about four or five other cat.

d) You right, old buddy. Let’s make it.
39. Find the stylistic device based upon the excessive use of speech elements:

a) framing;

b) zeugma;

c) chiasmus;

d) detachment.
40. I.R. Galperin distinguishes _____ functional styles.

a) two;


b) five;

c) four;


d) three.
41. The principle prof. Galperin's used in his classification (to form the third group of the second level) is based on …

  1. stable word combinations and their interactions with the context.

  2. the peculiar use of colloquial constructions.

  3. the "word-and-context" juxtaposition and various stylistic coloring.

  4. the peculiar use of high-flown words.


42. Link each of thefollowing sentences to the figure of speech it contains.

a) chiasmus

1. A dead leaf fell in Soapy's lap. That was Jack Frost’s card.

b) periphrasis

2. They are different as black and night.

c) allusion

3. I never lost my nerve yet till we kidnapped that two-legged skyrocket of a kid.

d) personification

4. One more night and this kid will send me to a bed in Bedlam.

e) violation of set phrase

5. I love my Love, and my Love loves me!



прямая соединительная линия 4прямая соединительная линия 543.In the classification of expressive means and stylistic devices I. R. Galperin uses…


  1. Level-oriented approach.

  2. Approach, based on combination of G. Leech’s system and Y. M. Skrebnev's one.

  3. Stylistics-oriented approach.

  4. Level-advanced approach.


44. Poetic words are used in poetic diction

  1. due to the poetic tradition only;

  2. to create the romantic atmosphere;

  3. to produce the effect of elevation;

  4. to comply with the poetic tradition and to create romantic atmosphere.



45.Link each of the following sentences to the figure of speech it contains


  1. irony

  2. zeugma

  3. interjections

  4. epithet

  5. oxymoron




  1. Dora, plunging at once into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room.

  2. Such was the background of the cruel, enchanting, fatal city.

  3. О brawling love! О loving hate!

  4. It must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a penny in one's pocket.

5. Oh, where are you going to, all you Big Steamers?



46. What approach did Y.M. Skrebnev use in his classification of expressive means and stylistic devices?


  1. A combination of G. Leech's Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic subdivision and I. R. Galperin's stylistic-oriented approach to classification.

  2. Level-oriented approach.

  3. A combination of five levels and two aspects of Stylistic analysis, which is bilateral.

  4. A combination of G. Leech's Paradigmatic/Syntagmatic approach and I. R. Galperin's level-oriented approach.



47. Link each of the following sentences to the figure of speech it contains


  1. paradox

  2. euphemism

  3. inversion

  4. chiasmus

  5. detachment




1.Women have a wonderful instinct about things. They can discover everything except the obvious.

2. She was obstinate as a mule, always had been, from a child.

3. Into each life some rain must fall.

4. It is safer to be married to the man you can be happy with than to the man you cannot be happy without.

5. The hospital was crowded with the surgically interesting products of the fighting in Africa.




48. Link each of the following sentences to the figures of speech it contains


a)antithesis

1. A woman who could face the very devil himself or a mouse-loses her grip and goes all to pieces in front of a flash of lightning.

b)epigram

2. A thing of beauty is a joy forever. (O.Wilde)

c)enumeration

3. The fair sex; my better half.

d)periphrasis

4. Scrooge was his sole executor, his sole administrator, his sole friend and his sole mourner.

e)bathos

5. Youth is lovely, age is lonely.

f)climax

6. Of course it's important, urgently, desperately important.

g)framing

7. Money is what he is after money!



49. G. Leech published in 1967…

  1. Essays on Stylistics.

  2. Fundamentals of English Stylistics.

  3. Essays on Style and Language.

  4. Stylistics.

  5. On style.


50. Link each of the following sentences to the figure of speech it contains.


  1. simile

  2. metaphor

  3. metonymy

  4. synecdoche

  5. personification




  1. England needs every man to do his duty.

  2. Many hands make light work.

  3. My love is like a red, red rose.

  4. The White House has reused to comment.

  5. Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player.





51. Lexical expressive means and stylistic devices are divided into (according to I. R. Galperin)…

a) 2 groups: Lexical and Syntactical expressive means and stylistic devices.

b) 2 groups: Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic expressive means and stylistic devices.

c) 3 groups: Poetic, Lexical and Syntactical expressive means and stylistic devices.

d) 3 groups: Phonetic, Lexical and Syntactical expressive means and stylistic devices.

e) 5 groups: Phonetics, Morphology, Lexicology, Syntax and Semasiology.


52. Link each of the following sentences to the figure of speech it contains.


a)Hyperbole

b)Periphrasis

c)Metaphor

d)Personification

e)Metonymy


  1. One after another those people lay down on the grass to laugh - and two of them died.

  2. How soon hath Time, the subtle thief of youth, stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year.

  3. Delia was studding under Rosenstock - you know his repute as a disturber of the piano keys.

  4. With Bewick on my knee, I was then happy, happy at least in my way.

  5. The machine sitting at the desk was no longer a man; it was a busy New York broker.



53. Syntactical stylistic devices are subdivided into (in prof. Galperin's classification)…

a) 4 groups: onomatopoeia, alliteration, thyme and rhythm.

b) 4 groups: dictionary and contextual meanings, primary and derivative meanings, logical and emotive meanings and logical and nominal meanings.

c) 3 groups: simile, euphemism and hyperbole.



d) 4 groups: devices, built on the type of juxtaposition, on the types of connection of their parts, on the peculiar use of colloquial constructions and on the transferred use of structural meaning.
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(44.03.01) peobraz IYA -> Рабочая программа дисциплины « В. Од. 9» «Стилистика» Направление подготовки : 44. 03. 01 Педагогическое образование
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