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Exercise 9. Use the Infinitive and/or the Participle to rewrite this extract from a TV listings magazine in a more natural way. The parts you need to change are underlined. You may need to change the order of some words. The first phrase has been done for you.
Movie of the Week.

The Godfather

It dates from 1971 and was directed by Francis Ford Coppola, the Godfather won three Oscars.

  • Dating from 1971…

The film lasts almost three hours and is Shakespearean in its scope and ambition. It is the story of a New York mafia family which is headed by Marlon Brando as “the Godfather”. Although Brando has the title role it is Al Pacino, who plays his troubled son and heir Michael, who steals the show in a masterly performance. As he struggles to reconcile his distaste for crime and brutality with his sense of family honour and duty, Pacino’s character embodies the moral dilemma at the heart of the movie.

The director intersperses long scenes of family life with shorter sequences of extreme ride.

Because it was short in explicit detail, this violence may shock some viewers. But anyone who is prepared to put with this will enjoy a unique dramatic experience. In fact, for many people the Godfather is the greatest American film which had been made in the 1970s.


A Participle is considered to belong to the noun or pronoun that immediately precedes it.

  • The boy climbing the tree to get bird’s eggs, had a bad fall.

Sometimes this principle is disregarded and confusion results:

  • Climbing down the tree, one of the eggs broke.

This word order makes it appear that the egg was climbing, which is nonsense. A Participle linked in this way to the wrong noun/pronoun is said to be misrelated. The sentence should be rewritten:

  • Climbing down the tree he broke one of the eggs.


  • As he was climbing down the tree one of the eggs broke

Exercise 10. Correct the sentences. Sometimes only a change of order is required.

  1. Running down the street, the envelope fell out of my hand.

  2. Driving along the road, a car pulled out in front of me.

  3. Answering the phone and making a toast, the toast burnt.

  4. Looking out of the window of our hotel room, there were lots of mountains.

  5. I saw my friend mount his horse sitting in an armchair near my window.

  6. Wondering where to go, an advertisement caught my eye.

  7. Waiting for a bus a brick fell on my head.

  8. Walking through the park, the flowers looked beautiful.

  9. Running into the room, a rug caught her foot and she fell.

  10. Opening the cupboard, a skeleton fell out.

Exercise 11. Translate into English.

  1. Спроси об этом у ребят, играющих во дворе.

  2. Ребята, играющие во дворе, хорошо знают правила.

  3. Человек, игравший в шахматы, не обратил на нас никакого внимания.

  4. Когда мы вошли, человек, игравший на пианино, остановился.

  5. Оставив вещи в камере хранения, мы пошли осматривать город.

  6. Я не мог переодеться, так как оставил вещи на вокзале.

  7. Купив билет и оставив вещи на вокзале, мы решили навестить друзей.

  8. Оставляя пальто в гардеробе, вы получаете номер.

  9. Человек, оставивший свой чемодан в холле, прошел к администратору.

  10. Пассажиры, оставляющие свои вещи в камере хранения, получают квитанцию.

  11. Вещи, оставляемые в камере хранения, сохраняются там двадцать дней.

  12. Вещи, оставленные в трамвае, могут быть получены в любое время на конечной остановке.

  13. Оставшись один, он начал распаковывать вещи.

Exercise 1. State the function of Participle II.
1. The answer to this was unexpected.

2. You didn’t look so interested.

3. There was a stillness in the small intimate dining-room, broken only by the subdued ticking of a Dutch clock upon the wall.

4. He replaced used ash-trays on the table with fresh, and refilled Dodo’s coffee cup, then the others.

5. He entered, puzzled but interested.

6. She always became impatient when asked to define a word of whose definition she was not sure.

7. Puzzled by the dim light, Sanders turned his attention to the inshore areas.

8. “Tell you what,” said Gideon, as if struck with a new idea.

9. You could have passed me by unnoticed.

10. She had no photographs of herself taken since her marriage.

Exercise 2. Replace the Subordinate Clause by a suitable Participle.

  1. She fell asleep while she sat in the armchair.

  2. Because I can speak Finnish I was able to follow their conversation.

  3. My brother, who has split up with his wife, wants to move in with me.

  4. So far nobody has claimed the money we discovered under the floorboards.

  5. After he had moved out, Danny found it difficult to find a nice place to stay.

  6. If you leave it for too long, oil paint will form a skin.

  7. The sea was very rough, which made me feel sick.

  8. As I am not very good with figures I’ll let you do the account figures.

  9. This is a house which has been built to last forever.

  10. Provided you wash it at a cool temperature this garment will not shrink.

  11. People who play loud music late at night can be a real nuisance.

  12. Because he had been unemployed for so long, Jack despaired of ever finding a job.

  13. If you give them enough time, the engineers will be able to find the fault.

  14. The people who lived closest to the river bank were the worst affected.

  15. Due to the fact that I hadn’t registered I was unable to vote in last week’s election.

Exercise 3. Translate into English.
a) покупающий, покупая, купленный, покупаемый; продающий, продавая, проданный, продаваемый; подписывающий, подписывая, подписанный, подписываемый; переводящий, переводя, переведенный, переводимый.

b) читающая девушка, разговаривающий студент, спящие дети, играющие котята, приближающийся поезд.

c) хорошо подготовленный урок, принятое приглашение, законченный проект, прочитанная книга, забытая мелодия.

Приносящий, принесенный, принося, принеся, переводящий, переведенный, переводя, давая, написав, берущий, прочитав, сделанный, сказанный, будучи потерянным, прочитанный, нарисованный, сидевший, строящий, строящийся, построенный.

Exercise 4. Choose the correct word.
1. The football match was quite exciting/excited.

2. It’s sometimes embarrassing/embarrassed when you have to ask people for money.

3. I’m fascinating/fascinated by Stephen King’s novels.

4. The film was disappointing/disappointed. I expected it to be much better.

5. I have never expected to get the job. I was really amazing/amazed when I was offered it.

6. Why do you always look so boring/bored? Is your life really so boring/bored?

7. I’ve always been interesting/interested in wild life, especially birds.

8. My exam results were rather disappointing/disappointed. I’ve got terrifying/terrified experience.

10. You look confusing/confused. Haven’t you understood what I’m talking about?

Exercise 5. Translate what is given in brackets using Participle I or Participle II as an attribute.
1. Larry refused the drink (предложенного) to him.

2. I’ve heard something about the research (проводимом) in this laboratory.

3. We came up to the man (стоявшему) at the corner and asked him the way.

4. The man (стоящий) at the timetable was our English teacher last year.

5. He inquired about the films (показывающихся) in the club at the time.

6. She decided to taste the meat pie (купленный) at the baker’s.

7. The people (ожидающие) for the doctor have been sitting here for a long time.

8. Suddenly I heard a sound of a key (поворачиваемого) in the lock.

9. What is the number of apartment houses (построенных) in the past few years?

10. The problem (поднятая) in the novel leaves nobody cold.

Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English using Participle I or Participle II.
1. Понравилась ли вам статья, написанная Джоном?

2. При изучении вопроса такого рода надо быть очень внимательным.

3. Не зная этого правила, я не могу сделать этого упражнения.

4. Когда меня впустили в комнату, я увидел там всех своих друзей.

5. Как вам нравится книга, которую сейчас обсуждают?

6. Не чувствуя себя виноватым, он отказался извиниться перед нами.

7. Окружив противника, мы заставили его сдаться.

8. Окруженные противником, мы не собирались сдаваться.

9. Он смотрел на меня так, как будто видит в первый раз.

10. Прибыв за два дня до открытия конференции, они успели осмотреть город.

Exercise 7. Translate into English using the pattern “to have smth done”.
1. Мне нужно запломбировать два зуба.

2. Мне покрасили эту дверь только на прошлой неделе. Вам нравится цвет?

3. Мне нужно сфотографироваться.

4. Я не понимаю по-немецки, поэтому все документы для меня переводят.

5. Нам уже починили телефон.

6. Мы отремонтировали квартиру до того, как уехали на юг.

7. Пора бы нам уже покрасить двери и окна в квартире. Мы их не красили года четыре.

8. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы доклад был напечатан к среде.

Exercise 1. Note the objective with the Infinitive and the verbs it is used after.
1. There’s some information I want you to obtain.

2. He liked to see them work.

3. Let’s get to the point.

4. Oh, Jack, you made me start.

5. I don’t want them to say anything to me.

6. James watched her go.

7. She gave a meaningful sigh, which made him drive all the faster.

8. I was dusting the saloon, and I saw him pass, and his face was white.

9. Lawson nodded quickly and walked away. Philip felt a shiver pass his heart.

10. He saw the pain come into Lawson’s eyes.

11. After a ten-minute wait I watched the train pull out.

12. I wanted us to be married at once, but she was quite firm that she wouldn’t.

13. Jennie was intensely sorry. She had never heard Lester complain before.
Exercise 2. Transform the following sentences into sentences with Complex Object.

  • I still consider they are right – I still consider them to be right.

1. He saw that the woman turned the corner.

2. I believe they are very good at physics and other pure sciences.

3. The judge ordered that the prisoner should be remanded.

4. They required that the guests should arrive at 8 a.m.
Exercise 3. State the syntactic functions of the for-to-Infinitive construction.
1. On the first occasion it was necessary for him to indicate his requirements to her.

2. The top of this was covered with a thin layer of soil and coarse grass and shaded with young trees. There was not enough soil for them to grow to any height.

3. He waited impatiently for Eliza to go on.

4. There is nothing for you to do it now.

6. She spread jam for him and cut up the bread and butter into convenient slices for the child to eat.

7. It is possible for any man to disregard others entirely.

8. In a minute it would be fitting for me to take my leave.

9. They were grouped about the mother, waiting for something to happen.

10. My friend motioned for him to come in.
Exercise 4. Note the subjective Infinitive construction and the verb it is used after.
1. He was seen to cross the street and turn round the corner.

2. She was reported to have been very faithful to her friends. She knew everybody she wished to know and everybody was pleased to know her.

3. When he recovered he was allowed to ski every Sunday.

4. Her retirement was rather a tragedy, she was forced to retire before time.

5. His pockets turned out to contain nothing except a packet of Turkish cigarettes, which he usually smoked.

6. He happened to be her brother-in-law.

7. He proved to be their devoted friend.

8. He seemed to know her thoughts.

9. At any moment the boys were likely to be away.

10. She was heard to breathe heavily.

11. He was made to eat a Chester cake and was spoken to in a slightly more Edinburgh way than usual.

12. He always appeared to be so helpful on the committees, so considerate.

13. Children appear to go through definite stages as they develop.

14. He seemed to be wondering whether much anxiety of mind had affected his eyesight.

15. After that Tommy was forced to admit the prospect looked dreary.
Exercise 5. Turn the following sentences into sentences with Complex Subject.

  • It seems that he is not in the habit of coming in time. – He seems not to be in the habit of coming in time.

1. It seemed to him that his father was inclined to be patient with him.

2. It was felt that she was perfectly capable of taking care of herself.

3. It is believed that his advice was ignored.

4. They say that he is honest.

5. A group of people at the gangway saw that the boat came into the harbour.

Exercise 6. Complete the following sentences, using the Infinitive and complexes with the Infinitive.
1. I think I should warn you that it is not very prudent…

2. They had the gift…

3. I say that certain things are to be done, but I don’t order anybody…

4. The train was seen…

5. He said somebody was supposed…

6. She has arranged everything for…

7. It is unusual for a person…

8. The best thing for you …

9. I am very anxious for…

10. I shall never forget the tactful patience with which he persuaded her…

11. The translation proved too difficult for…

12. Many highly trained workers are expected…

Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into English using complexes with the Infinitive.
1. Он не ожидал, что я так быстро уйду.

2. Она слышала, как уехала его машина.

3. Его письма обычно заставляли ее смеяться.

4. Она бы хотела, чтобы я навестила их в воскресенье.

5. Я никогда не слышала, чтобы он так много говорил.

6. Вы хотите, чтобы я сказала ему об этом сегодня?

7. Говорят, что он лучший доктор в нашем городе.

8. По-видимому, он собирается стать врачом.

9. С того времени вы, кажется, очень сильно изменились.

10. Очень вероятно, что они будут благодарить меня за помощь.

11. Слышали, как открылась дверь, и кто-то вошел в комнату.

12. Она позвонила, чтобы они навестили ее в начале сентября.

13. Она говорила достаточно громко, чтобы все могли ее хорошо слышать.

14. Она ждала, когда Анна вернется с прогулки.

15. В 8 часов дети вошли, чтобы сказать спокойной ночи, и подошли к матери, чтобы она могла их поцеловать.
Exercise 8. There is at least one mistake in each sentence. Suggest appropriate corrections.

  1. She longed the holidays to come so that she could be with her family again.

  2. I overheard say that he’s thinking of moving to Manchester.

  3. We watched to play football until it started to rain.

  4. Very reluctantly, he consented her to lend the money to Janet.

  5. My parents always encouraged work hard at school.

  6. For years the group has been campaigning an inquiry to hold into the accident.

  7. I think we should let them to stay until the weekend.

  8. Sam promised me to show me how to fish for salmon, but he never had the time.

  9. Hospital workers had to make them to do with a 1,5% pay increase this year.

  10. I hear her tell that she’s got a new job (=someone told me about it).

  11. This card entitles to take an extra person with your fee.

  12. They let me to borrow their car while they were on holiday.

Exercise 9. Supply a suitable Infinitive construction with “be supposed to”.

    • I’m sorry. I’ll have to phone you later (to work).

    • I’m supposed to be working at.

  1. You’d better ask Henry (to know) how this computer works.

  2. We’d better hurry. The train (to arrive) at two minutes past four.

  3. Just look at the questionnaire! How we (to answer) questions like these?

  4. I don’t think there are any buses today. There (to be) a strike.

  5. We’re already late. We (to submit) this report five days ago.

  6. Don’t breathe a word to anybody. You (not to know) anything about this.

Exercise 10. Replace the underlined group of words by an Infinitive or an Infinitive construction.

    • It is important that he should understand this – It is important for him to understand this.

    • He was the first man who arrived – He was the first man to arrive.

  1. The captain was the last man who left the ship.

  2. He got to the top and was very disappointed when he found that someone else had reached it first.

  3. Would you be very kind and lend me your umbrella?

  4. There are a lot of sheets that need mending.

  5. It was astonished when I heard that he had left the country.

  6. It is better that he should hear it from you.

  7. It was rude to him, which was stupid (It was stupid…)

  8. If he had another child with whom he could play he would be happier.

  9. It is necessary that everyone should know the truth.

  10. There was no place where we could sit.

  11. He put his hand into his pocket and was astonished when he found that his wallet wasn’t there.

  12. He rushed into the burning house, which was very brave of him (It was very brave…)

  13. I can’t go to the party; I have nothing that I can wear.

  14. It is expected that he will broadcast a statement tonight. (He is expected…)

  15. I want a kitchen where (=in which) I can cook.

  16. He reached the station exhausted and was very disappointed when he learnt that the train had just left.

  17. Haven’t you anything with which you could open it?

  18. It seems that the crime was committed by a left-handed man. (The crime seems…)

  19. Is it likely that he will arrive before six? (Is he…)

  20. I was on the point of leaving the house when the phone rang.

  21. This is the plan: someone will meet you at the station… [you… (be met) at the station]

  22. She is anxious that they should have every possible advantage.

  23. It is said that he was a brilliant scientist. (He is said…)

  24. The strikers decided that the strike should continue.

  25. Would you be very kind and translate this for me?

  26. It is advisable that we should leave the house separately.

  27. You signed the document without reading it, which was very stupid. (It was stupid…)

  28. It is said that she has a frightful temper. (She …)

  29. He was the first man who swam the Channel.

  30. They believe that he is honest. (He…)

  31. It appears that he was killed with a blunt instrument. (He appears…)

  32. He was the only one who realized the danger.

  33. It is said that the earth was originally part of the sun. (The earth…)

  34. He took out his spare wheel and was very disappointed with when he discovered that that tyre was also punctured.

  35. It is said that the murderer is hiding in the woods near your house.



Exercise 1. Read and translate the following sentences. Speak on the verbs after which Complex Objects with Participle I are used.

  1. He noticed a girl standing listlessly by a pillar and he slowed his pace. (Lessing)

  2. I thought I saw something moving along the track. (Vickers)

  3. But he found his traps waiting for him in the porter’s lodge. (Maugham)

  4. I opened the door with extreme reluctance and found Morton standing outside. (Aldington)

  5. The four soldiers noticed Christian watching them. (Shaw)

  6. She ran up the drive … and I heard her fumbling for the key. (Chase)

  7. From where she stood she could hear everything going on at once. (Christie)

  8. I heard the guards moving behind us. (Green)

  9. … their ears spread wide to hear the first noise that would sent them rushing into the bush. (Hemingway)

  10. It set him thinking. (Dreiser)

  11. We may suppose him representing the England of Napoleon’s wars, and general unrest. (Galsworthy)

  12. Well, I don’t want you coming here and telling me I’m untidy. (Vickers)

  13. In her ears there rang a sudden the outrageous and unaccountable laughter that had sent Miss Warren flying from the room. (Maugham)

  14. I do not want to see you rolling in here at three in the morning, Caleb. (Baldwin)

  15. I see us moving into the room, piloted by the rather desperately smiling Mr.Frank. (Baldwin)

  16. I watched her talking to the bartender, who nodded several times, not looking in our direction. (Baldwin)

  17. Just left me standing there with my paw out. (Sanders)

Exercise 2. Use either the Infinitive or Participle I of the verbs in brackets as a secondary predicate of Complex Object.

  1. She watched him (to walk) away until she could see him no more.

  2. I noticed him (to give) her a quick look.

  3. When I turned my head I saw him still (to stand) in the doorway.

  4. Then I heard water (to flush), heard water (to run), heard him (to come out). (Baldwin)

  5. I would find some way to make them (to pay). (Baldwin)

  6. I watched the people (to pass), listened to the music (to come) from a bar behind us, watched the church members (to go) home from church. (Baldwin)

  7. From far away he heard the front door (to open) and (to close). (Clark)

  8. Through narrowed eyes he observed Neeve (to step) from the cab. (Clark)

  9. Now and then he saw old ghosts (to haunt) her eyes, but it was time she left them.. (Steel)

  10. She felt her mother (to approve). (Steel)

  11. She hears him (to mutter) and assumes he is praying. (Sanders)

  12. But I think I persuaded him (to keep) it small. (Sanders)

  13. Matilda sits down, letting her stole (to slip) to the floor. (Sanders)

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