Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов неязыковых специальностей Витебск Издательство уо "вгу им. П. М. Машерова"

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Read the words and memorize them.

Beneath (prep) [bi ni:Ө ]- под, ниже, внизу

Bough (n) [bau] - ветвь, сук

Care (n) [kεə] - забота

In broad daylight [in brə:d deilait] - средь бела дня

Stream (n) [ stri:m] - река, поток, ручей

To enrich (v) [in rit∫] - обогащать, украшать

To stare (v) [stεə] - пристально смотреть

Read the poem and try to explain the meaning of it.

What Is This Life?

What is this life if, full of care,

We have no time to stand and stare?

No time to stand beneath the boughs

And stare as long as sheep or cows;

No time to see, when woods we pass,

Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass;

No time to see, in broad daylight,

Streams full of stars, like skies at night;

No time to turn at Beauty's glance,

And watch her feet, how they can dance;

No time to wait till her mouth can

Enrich that smile her eyes began?

A poor life is this if, full of care,

We have no time to stand and stare.

Looking at the issue

  • What does the author want to portray?

  • How can you explain the meaning of the poem?

  • What advice does the author want to give us?

  • How can you explain the meaning of the word «Life»? What is life for you?

  • Do you agree with W.H. Davies?

It is known that people’s life is the most important thing in the world. Many people don’t even notice how it «runs». We are always in a hurry. What for? Coming to our «sunset» we understand that we know nothing about life… We should say «stop» to ourselves and begin to live! Just appreciate every minute, feelings of other people, health …

What is important for you? What moral values do you appreciate?

Here are some moral values. Read and analyze them.

Career - an occupation with opportunities for promotion;

Confidence - a feeling or certainty or boldness; being sure that you can do something;

Education - process of training people’s minds and abilities so that they acquire knowledge and develop skills.

Family - parents and their children, sometimes including grandchildren and other relations;

Freedom - being free, independence;

Friendship -the feeling that exists between friends;

Health - the condition of a person’s body or mind;

Love - great liking or affection;

Peace - time when there is no war, violence or disorder;

Wealth - a lot of money or property, riches.

Wisdom - being wise.

Range these values according to their importance for you:

  1. ………….

  2. …………

  3. …………

11. ………….
We need a little to be happy. Read the verse and try to follow the given advice in your daily life.

Creation (n) [kri:  ei∫(ə)n] создание, творение

Creative (adj) [kri:  eitiv] творческий

Rationally (adv) [ ræ∫ən (ə) li] разумно, целесообразно, рационально

To aspire (v) [əs paiə] стремиться

To create (v) [kri: eit] творить, создавать

To glorify (v) [ glə:rifai] прославлять

To meditate (v) [ mediteit] размышлять

To nurture (v) [ nə:t∫ə] воспитывать

To praise (v) [ preiz] восхвалять

To pursue (v) [pə sju:] преследовать, гнаться

To reach ones potential [ri:t∫ pə ten∫(ə)l] достичь предела своих возможностей, полностью раскрыть себя

To value (v) ценить

To X-ray (v) [ eksrei] исследовать, тщательно проверять

To yearn (v) [jə:n] стремиться

Zestfully (adv) [ zestf (ə) li] живо, с охотой, с жаром

Looking at the issue

Are you happy?

What is happiness?

What makes people happy?

What is happiness for you?


The ABC of Happiness

Aspire to reach your potential

Believe in yourself

Create a good life

Dream about what you might become

Exercise frequently

Glorify the creative spirit

Humour yourself and others

Imagine great things

Joyfully live each day

Kindly help others

Love one another

Meditate daily

Nurture the environment

Organize for harmonious action

Praise performance well done

Regulate your behaviour

Smile often

Think rationally

Understand yourself

Value life

Work for the common good

X-ray and carefully examine problems

Yearn to improve

Zestfully pursue happiness.

Most of us would like to be happy, if only we knew how. What makes people happy? Can we realise how happy we are? A famous philosopher says that we are happy when we don’t notice this feeling. Do you agree with this statement? We have many problems in our life. The most serious of them are problems concerning family. There are so many families without children… Parents must make their choice…
Read and learn the following words:
Abortion (n) [ə bə:∫ (ə) n] аборт

Brain (n) [brein] мозг

Fetus (n) [ fi:təs] плод, зародыш, эмбрион

Handicapped (mentally, [ hændikæpt]

physically) с физическими, умственными недостатками; умственно неполноценный

Health insurance [ helӨ in ∫uər(ə)ns медицинская страховка

Husband (n) [ h^zbənd] муж

Pregnancy (n) беременность

To be pregnant [ pregnənt] быть беременной

To marry (v) [ mæri] жениться, выходить замуж

To be married [ mærid] быть замужем, женатым

To give birth (to) [ bə:Ө] родить ребенка

To develop (v) [di veləp] развивать(ся)

Wife (n) [waif] жена

I. Give words or phrases (from the glossary) for the following definitions:

  1. The organ inside the top of the head that controls the body; the mind, intelligence.

  2. The woman to whom a man is married.

  3. Physically or mentally disabled.

  4. Unite a man and woman legally for the purpose of living together.

  5. An agreement to compensate someone for damage or injury in return for a payment.

II. Choose 3 any words from the glossary and make your own sentences with them.
III. Choose the word or words which best complete the sentences.
Pregnant married gave birth abortion develop

  1. They have been …for 10 years.

  2. My sister … to a wonderful baby.

  3. Jane is … with her fifth child.

  4. … is a removal of a baby from the womb before it has developed enough to survive.

  5. They … bad habits.

IV. Translate the following sentences.

  1. Они женаты 5 лет.

  2. Катя ждет ребенка.

  3. Многие люди выступают против абортов.

  4. Зародыш развивается нормально и умственно, и физически.

  5. Медицинская справка оплачивается компанией.

V. Read and translate the text «The unborn child». A wife and a husband have to make a difficult decision. Find out: What are they trying to decide?
Sia and her husband, Ashat, have tо make a very difficult decision. Sia, 38 years old, and Ashat, 42, have always wanted a child. They have been mar­ried for 10 years and tried for a long time to have a baby.

Now Sia is three months pregnant. Their doctor just told them that the fetus's brain is not developing properly. If Sia gives birth, the baby will be badly handicapped, both mentally and physically. It will always need special care and special schools.

Sia is depressed and con­fused. She is against abortion and she really wants to have a baby now. Three years ago, Sia was pregnant but lost the fetus in the fourth month. This pregnancy may be her last chance. She thinks she can love and take care of the baby, no matter how handicapped it might be.

While Ashat has always been opposed to abortion, he is having second thoughts. Ashat has a good job, and the health insurance from his com­pany will pay for Sia's pregnancy. But it will not pay for all of the costs of the special care and schools that the child will need. Ashat is worried about the future, after the baby is born. He wonders what kind of life it can have. Ashat also wonders how a badly handi­capped baby will change their lives. Finally, he is very wor­ried about money. They will not have enough money for the special care and schools. What should they do? Should Sia have an abortion? Or should she have the baby and face the future then? But she must consider the feelings of her husband. Together they somehow must make a decision.

VI. True or false?

  1. Sia is 39 years old.

  2. Three years ago, Sia was pregnant but lost the fetus in the fourth month.

  3. Ashat has a bad job.

  4. Ashat is sure that his company will pay for all of the costs of the special care and schools that the child will need.

  5. Ashat is very worried about money.

  6. Sia thinks she can love and take care of the baby, no matter how handicapped it might be.

VII. Put in the right order.

  1. They will not have enough money for the special care and schools.

  2. He wonders what kind of life it can have.

  3. Sia is depressed and con­fused.

  4. It will always need special care and special schools.

  5. Sia and her husband, Ashat, have tо make a very difficult decision.

  6. The fetus's brain is not developing properly.

  7. They tried for a long time to have a baby.

  8. This pregnancy may be her last chance.

  9. She really wants to have a baby now.

  10. Ashat is worried about the future, after the baby is born.

VIII. Do you agree with the following proverb:

«He that has no children knows not what is love»?

What do you think?

Is abortion the right decision in this case? Check the opinions you agree with.

  • I think so. The baby has no future. Both the child and the parents will only suffer.

  • Yes. Doctors don't know everything Perhaps Sia will be able to have another baby.

  • No, Sia should have the baby. All children, handi­capped or normal, have the right to be born.

  • No, an abortion is not the answer. This might be their last chance to have a baby.

  • Miracles can happen. Maybe this baby will be fine. They should have the baby.

Looking at the issue

Is abortion legal in your country?

completely legal legal in some situations completely illegal

In what situations should abortion be allowed? Check all that you agree with.

  • When the mother does not want the pregnancy

  • When the parents do not want the pregnancy

  • When the mother's health is in danger

  • When the pregnancy is because of rape

  • When the parents are very young

  • When the baby is going to be handicapped

  • It should never be allowed, regardless of the reasons.


The word «family» means a lot for every person and brings a lot of memories to his mind. Are there any things common to different families? Do you agree with Leo Tolstoy’s words: «All happy families resemble one another, each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way»?

One more problem - divorces.
Read and learn the following words:

Argue (v) [ a:gju:] спорить, доказывать

Because of (prep.) из-за

Blood pressure [bl^d pr∫ə] кровяное давление

Depression (n) [di pre∫ (ə) n] уныние, угнетенное состояние, депрессия

For the sake of (prep.) ради

Hard (for) (adv.) трудно, тяжело

Marriage (n) [ mæridj] брак

To agree (on) (v) [ə  gri:] договориться о чем-либо

To be depressed [di  prest] быть в угнетенном состоянии

To be embarrassed [im bærəst] быть в замешательстве

To be married быть женатым, замужем

To bear (v) [bεə] выносить, терпеть

To cause (v) [kə:z] причинять, вызывать

To divorce (v) [di  və:s] разводиться

To get a divorce разводиться

To stare (at) (v) [stεə] уставиться (на)

To stay (with) (v) [stei] оставаться с кем-то; остановиться у кого-то

To suffer (from) (v) [ s^fə] страдать (от)
I. Form the derivatives of the words given in the chart below. Use a dictionary if necessary.









II. Fill in prepositions if necessary:

For on of at with from

  1. It is hard… me to read books in the original.

  2. He didn’t want to leave home because … bad weather conditions.

  3. What are you suffering …?

  4. When He doesn’t know anything, he stares … the window and keeps silence.

  5. It is difficult for my parents to agree … something.

  6. I must study well … the sake … my future.

  7. When I visit Minsk I usually stay … my relatives.

III. Match the words with their definitions.

Stare argue stay suffer agree cause

  1. Think or say the same as another person.

  2. Say that you disagree; exchange angry comments.

  3. Be the cause of; make something happen.

  4. Look at something intensely.

  5. Continue to be in the same place or condition; remain

Spend time in a place as a visitor.

  1. Feel pain or sadness.

IV. Translate the word combinations:

Высокое кровяное давление, причинять боль, счастливый брак, согласиться с условиями, ради семьи, уставиться в книгу, страдать от головной боли, из-за болезни, глубокая депрессия, развестись с женой, спорить по мелочам.

V. Wali Abunit has not been healthy recently. Read his conversation with his doctor and find out: what makes him feel so bad?

For the Sake of Children

"Wali, the results of the tests show that your blood pressure is high... too high for a man of your age. What's wrong?" asks Dr. Netaka.

"I don't know. Well, you know, I just don't feel happy. I'm depressed. Is that strange?'

"No, not at all. Unfortunately, many people are like that. Do you have any idea what's causing your depression?"

Wali hangs his head and stares at the floor. He is embar­rassed. He starts to say some­thing, but stops.

"Hmm," says his doctor. ‘I think you know what's wrong. You can tell me. I won't tell anyone else, not even your wife, Fionia."

"My wife...Fionia. It's funny that you should mention her name," says Wali. "Actually, I think my marriage is the prob­lem. Did you know we've been married for 15 years? Fifteen long years," Wali sighs. "Our marriage is terrible. We fight and argue all the time. We can never agree on anything. It's hard for me to live with her. I guess...I don't love my wife anymore."

"What about your two children? Do you love them?" asks Dr. Netaka.

"Yes, very much. And that's part of the problem. I'm afraid to get a divorce because of the children. I think Fionia and I will have to stay married for the sake of the children."

Dr. Netaka thinks about this for a minute and then asks Wali, "Why? Why do you think you have to stay with your wife because of your children?"

"Everyone knows that children suffer when their par­ents get divorced. I don't want my children to suffer and be unhappy and confused. And I don't want to lose them. If I divorce Fionia, she will probably keep the children. I would only be able to see them every now and then. I couldn't bear that. I would miss them too much."

VI. Answer the questions:

  1. Why was Wali depressed?

  2. How long had he been married?

  3. What was wrong with his marriage?

  4. What was he afraid to do?

  5. Why did he decide to stay with his wife?

  6. What would you do in such a situation?

What do you think?

What do you think about divorce? Check the opinions you agree with.

  • Children don’t want to see their parents unhappy or fighting all the time. So divorce may help the children, not hurt them.

  • When parents get divorced, they should explain to their children that the divorce is the parents` problem and that the children are not to blame.

  • Divorce is wrong. Husbands and wives should try hard to stay together.

  • With or without children, it doesn’t matter. When love ends, the marriage is over.

  • It is OK to get divorced if you don’t have children. But if you do have kids, you should never get divorced.

Looking at the issue

In many countries, the divorce rate is getting higher and higher. Is there a way to lower it? Check the ideas you like.

  • The government gives money as a reward to couples who have been married for a long time.

  • Divorce is not allowed, except in certain situations, such as terrible mental illness.

  • The government charges a high tax on divorces.

  • The government hires marriage counselors to give advice to people.

  • Couples live together for a few years before they decide to get married.

  • Couples live together but don't get married,

What are your ideas?


We can’t catch time. Years are passing… Our parents are getting older and older… One day they will not be able to live alone. What should we do?

Read and learn the following words:

Far away from - далеко от

Forgetful (adj.) [fə getfəl] забывчивый, рассеянный

Housekeeper (n) [ hauski:pə] экономка

Nurse (n) [ nə:s] сиделка

Pill (n) - таблетка

Solution (n) [sə lu:∫(ə)n] решение, разрешение (проблемы)

Tiny (adj.) [ taini] крошечный

To afford to do smth.(v) [ə fə:d] позволить (кому-либо) что-то сделать

To commute (v) [kə mju:t]- совершать ежедневные поездки

To die (v) [dai] умирать

To face (v) [ feis] встречать что­­­-то смело, смотреть в лицо чему-либо без страха

To hire (v) [ haiə] нанимать

To look for (v) - искать

To take smb … to do smth. займет (потребуется)

For example: It takes me 5 minutes to get there.

To take care of (v) заботиться о

I. Explain the following words:
Forgetful, Commute, Nurse, Tiny, Housekeeper
II. Give the comparatives and the superlatives of the adjectives:

Old, forgetful, expensive, tiny, small, big, impossible, cheap, far.

Find adjectives in the text and determine their degree.
III. There are two phrasal verbs in the text: to take care of, to look for. What do they mean? Study the examples and match the words on the left with their definitions on the right.

You should look up all unfamiliar words in a dictionary.

Our neighbours promised to look after our cat while we are on holiday.

She looked at him as if she wanted to ask something.

Look out!

To look at

take care of something/ someone

To look up

direct one’s eyes on something/ someone

To look after

be on the watch; be careful

To look out

search for something in a book, dictionary.


Where did the accident take place?

She pretended not to take notice of his strange behaviour.

Andrew takes after his father.

We took part in the competition.

To take part in smth.

happen, occur

To take place

catch sight of somebody\ something

To take notice of

resemble a close, older relative

To take after

participate in

IV. Translate the word combinations:

Решение вопроса, ежедневно ездить на работу, мужественно встретить опасность, позволить себе купить машину, рассеянный человек, заботиться о родителях, нанять работника, принимать таблетки 3 раза в день, крошечная квартира, искать очки, далеко от города, для решения задачи потребуется 20 минут.

V. Toshi is worried about his 78-year-old mother. Read Toshi's conversation with his wife, Midori, and find out: what do they want to do for his mother?

Taking care of Mother

Toshi: We have to face the facts. Mother is too old to live alone.

Midori: Yes, you're probably right. She is getting older, and since your father died, she seems very forgetful.

Toshi: Mother will need someone to take care of her in the near future.

Midori: Perhaps we could hire a nurse. You know, someone who could come in during the day, clean the house, cook some meals, make sure she takes her pills.

Toshi: But nurses don't do all of those things. You're thinking of a nurse and a housekeeper. Who would pay for that? It will be very expensive!

Midori: Well, Toshi, what are you thinking?

Toshi: Since I'm the only child, we have to take care of her. She can come to live with us.

Midori: Here? In this tiny house? There are only two bed­rooms. We can't move our two daughters out of their small bedroom.

Toshi: What else can we do? We can't afford to hire a nurse and a housekeeper. I'm her only child. Her husband, brother and sister are all dead. We have to take care of her.

Midori: May be we could look for a bigger house.

Toshi: In Tokyo? You know that's impossible. We tried look­ing last year and everything in this area of Tokyo is too expensive.

Midori: Let's move away from the city. Someplace cheap.

Toshi: But then I would be far away from my office. It might take me two or three hours on the train. I hate to commute. No, the only solu­tion is for Mother to live with us here.
VI. Give synonyms to the following:

Talk - Absent - minded - Small - Large -

Give antonyms to the following:

Expensive - Tiny - Far -

VII. Answer the questions:

  1. How old was Toshi`s mother?

  2. Why did Toshi want the mother to live with them?

  3. What did Midori propose to do?

  4. Did they have a big or a small house?

  5. Could they afford to hire a nurse and a housekeeper? Why?

  6. What was Toshi`s solution?

What do you think?

Which opinions do you agree with? Check as many as you want.

  • It's too expensive to take care of old people. I think the government should be responsible for taking care of them.

  • Taking care of elderly parents is the child's duty. So the child should not depend on other people or on the govern­ment for help.

  • Your parents should live with you when they're old, even if your house is small.

  • If your mother or father suddenly comes to your house to live, it will cause a lot of problems.

  • Elderly people should live in special homes. They shouldn't bother their children.

Looking at the issue

Many older parents live with their children. Can you think of reasons for and against this arrangement?

Older parents should live with their children because...

Older parents should not live with their children because…

1. It's more fun with more members in the family.

1. My small house would be crowded.






Love is a great feeling. What is love? Read the following statements. Do you agree with them?

  • «Love is like a war… Easy to start… Difficult to end… Impossible to forget …»

  • «Love is the beauty of the soul».

  • «Love is the master key that opens the gates of happiness».

  • «True love is when you can sit in a room together and say nothing, and it feels like you have said a thousand words! »

  • «Love does not consist in gazing at each other but in looking outward together in the same direction».

What is love for you?

Read and learn the following words:

Angry (with) (v) [ æηgri] - сердитый, злой

Confusing (adj.) [kən fju:ziη]- сбивающий с толку, запутанный

Diary (n) [ daiəri] - дневник

Fit (in) (v) - приноравливаться, приспосабливаться

Miss (v) - скучать

Mixed marriages [mikst] - смешанные браки

Society (n) [sə saiəti] - общество

I. Form the derivatives of the words given in the chart below. Use a dictionary if necessary.








II. Give the words or phrases for the following definitions:

  1. A book in which someone writes down what happens each day.

  2. Feeling anger

  3. Something puzzling

  4. Be sad because someone or something is not with you.

  5. Be suitable

  6. A community; people living together in a group or nation.

III. Compose your own sentences with:

Angry (with),fit (in), miss.

IV. Translate the sentences:

  1. Многие люди ведут личный дневник.

  2. Смешанные браки широко распространены в настоящее время.

  3. Трудно привыкнуть (приспособиться) к традициям чужой страны.

  4. Это было сбивающее с толку доказательство.

  5. Находясь за границей, люди скучают по дому.

V. Sachiko is a 22-year-old Japanese student who is spending her senior year at an American university in Los Angeles. She has met a special man named Amir. Read her diary and find out: what is she trying to decide?
Dear Diary,

Tonight Amir asked me to marry him! I knew he would. I love him so much. It is hard to believe that we have known each other for only eight months.

But as much as I love him, I don't know what to do. My par­ents would be angry with me for marrying a man from India. They want me to marry only a Japanese man. My mother has told me that good Japanese marry only Japanese.

And that's not all. There are so many other problems. I mean, where would we live? I think it would be very hard for me to live in India. Would I fit in to Indian society? I don't speak any Indian languages. I would have a difficult time finding a job. And I don't want to be just a housewife! That's for sure.

I don't think Amir would fit in to Japanese society, either. He doesn't speak Japanese. He sounds so funny when he tries to say a single Japanese word! It would be impossible for him to find a job in Japan. Besides, he doesn't even like Japanese food!

Maybe we could stay in the United States. Both of us will finish our studies in May. I wonder if we could get work visas here. That might be diffi­cult. But even if we could stay here, I don't know if I want to live away from Japan. I would miss my family and friends and everything.

And what about our chil­dren? Children of mixed mar­riages might have a difficult time. Would they be Japanese? Indian? What? It is all so confusing.

The more I write to you, dear diary, the more problems I see. I know that marriage is difficult. More and more mar­riages end in divorce. And I think that international mar­riages are even more difficult!

Oh, I am SO confused.
VI. Paraphrase the following:

  1. My par­ents would be angry with me for marrying a man from India.

  2. I think it would be very hard for me to live in India.

  3. I don't think Amir would fit in to Japanese society.

  4. Children of mixed mar­riages might have a difficult time.

  5. It is all so confusing.

VII. True or false?

  1. It would be easy for Amir to find a job in Japan.

  2. They had known each other for 5 months.

  3. Sachiko`s mother told her that good Japanese marry only Japanese.

  4. Sachiko speaks Indian language.

  5. They want to live in the USA.

  6. Children of mixed mar­riages might have a difficult time.

  7. She is happy.

VIII. Give Russian equivalents to the following proverbs and sayings. Make up short stories to illustrate them:

Love in the cottage.

Marriages are made in heaven.

Marriage goes by contrasts.


What should Sachiko do?

Check the responses you agree with.

  • They shouldn't make a decision about marriage right now. They should visit each other's country. There is a lot of time to think about what to do.

  • She should marry Amir and live in the U.S. That's fair for both Amir and her. Both of them could visit their home countries sometimes.

  • She should marry Amir and try living in India. It could be a really good experience for her.

  • Sachiko should break up with Amir. There are too many problems to continue the relationship.

  • She should marry Amir and live in Japan. More and more foreign people are living in Japan, so Amir will be accepted.


What are some of the advantages of an international marriage?

What are some of the problems with an international marriage?

Additional reading

Keiko and Akira have been friends for a long time. But something has happened, and they might not be friends anу longer. Read the story and find out: what has happened to hurt, and maybe even end, their friendship?

Friends or Lovers?

Akira and Keiko leave the university library after several hours of studying together, something they do often. Suddenly, Akira tries to kiss Keiko. Keiko is shocked.

"What are you doing, Akira?" Keiko asks, hardly able to speak. "You're my best friend. We've been friends for five years. You're closer to me than my brother. And now you want to kiss me?"

Akira explains, "I want our friendship to be even closer."

"No, no, no! I don't think of you in that way. You're my friend. Best friends don't act that way."

Akira looks confused. "I don't understand. Don't you see me as a man?"

"Of course I do," replies Keiko. "You're a handsome man. But you're a special man...my best friend. So we can't do this. Now do you understand?"

"No, not at all. Here is how I see it. You're a woman and I'm a man. We like each other very much. We're very close. So let's do what is natural in any male-female relationship."

"Natural? I think our friendship is natural. I thought I understood you. Maybe I was wrong," cries Keiko.

Akira's face is red. "So you really don't like me at all. You just want someone to talk to." He turns and walks quickly away.

Keiko's anger turns to sadness. In her heart, she thinks Akira is wrong—men and women can be friends without being lovers. But now she's not sure. What if all men think like Akira?
I. Answer the questions:

  1. For how long had Keiko and Akira been friends?

  2. In what way did Akira confuse Keiko? What did He want to show?

  3. How did Keiko explain her reaction?

  4. What was Akira`s argument for his action?

  5. What thoughts was Keiko full of after that event?

II. What do you think? Can a man and a woman be close friends without being lovers? Check the opinions you agree with.

  • Sometimes they can be friends, but usually friendship between a man and a woman is difficult.

  • Maybe not. If a man and a woman are close friends, they will naturally become lovers.

  • Yes, they can. I know a lot of cases like that among my friends.

  • It's impossible, because men always want to have sex with women they like.

  • Of course they can. I have some good men friends and we're just friends.

III. What is your best friend like? Use three adjectives.

For example, tall, kind, talkative.

She (He) is _______, _______and____

Why is that person your best friend?

For example, She helps me when I'm in trouble.

We have a great time talking together.

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