Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для бакалавров и специалистов экологического факультета 2 этап обучения Краснодар 2011 г


Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below



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5.Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below:

flux, existence, originated, ceasing, shell, to date, rocks, diverse, fragile, entire


  1. The biosphere is the part of Earth's outer …

  2. The biosphere includes land, surface …, water, air and the atmosphere.

  3. The … Earth contains over 75 billion tons of biomass.

  4. The animals … depends very heavily on plants life.

  5. More than 2 million species of plants and animals have been identified …

  6. The number of individual species is constantly in some degree of …

  7. New species are appearing and others … to exist.

  8. The Earth’s thin and … “film of life” – varies from a few meters in deserts and tundra to a hundred meters in tropical forest regions and oceans.

  9. The idea of biosphere … rather casually more than a century ago.

  10. The process of evolution resulted in the formation of ever-more … life forms.


Reading for Speaking and Discussing
Read the text and answer the question:

-Who played the most prominent role in the development of the biosphere concept?


Biosphere
The biosphere is the part of Earth's outer shell – including land, surface rocks, water, and the atmosphere – within which life occurs. From the broadest geophysiological point of view, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere (rocks), hydrosphere (water), and atmosphere (air). Currently the entire Earth contains over 75 billion tons of biomass (life), which lives within various environments within the biosphere.

Over nine-tenths of the total biomass on Earth is plant life, on which animal life depends very heavily for its existence. More than 2 million species of plants and animals have been identified to date, and the actual number of existing species ranges from several million to over 50 million. The number of individual species is constantly in some degree of flux, with new species appearing and others ceasing to exist on a continual basis. The total number of species is presently in rapid decline.

Biosphere is a relatively thin life-supporting layer around the Earth containing living organisms, which is strongly influenced in composition, structure and energetics by the living organisms. Part of the biosphere containing the highest concentration of living matter – the Earth’s thin and fragile “film of life” – varies from a few meters in deserts and tundra to a hundred meters in tropical forest regions and oceans.

The biosphere is a complex system of energy use and material cycling. This system runs on energy flowing into it from the Sun and gives off energy (primarily as heat) to space.

We can divide the biosphere into two parts, living and nonliving, or biotic and abiotic. The biotic part of the biosphere consisting of fauna and flora is called biota.

The idea of biosphere originated rather casually more than a century ago. It was Edward Suess, an Austrian who proposed the term biosphere after observing that life only developed within the strict limits of earth’s part that makes up the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The concept played little part in scientific thought, however, until it was developed by the Russian scientist V.I. Vernadsky. It is essentially his concept of the biosphere that we accept today.


Evolution


Life, as it is currently understood, is known to exist only on the planet Earth. The origin of life is still a poorly understood process, but it is thought to have occurred about 3.9 to 3.5 billion years ago on the earth that had a substantially different environment than is found at present. These life forms possessed the basic traits of self-replication and inheritable traits. Once life had appeared, the process of evolution by natural selection resulted in the formation of ever-more diverse life forms. Species that were unable to adapt to the changing environment and competition from other life forms became extinct.

The appearance of photosynthesis in very basic forms of plant life worldwide allowed the sun's energy to create conditions allowing for more complex life. As a result oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere and gave rise to the ozone layer. The incorporation of smaller cells within larger ones resulted in the development of yet more complex cells called eukaryotes. Cells within colonies became increasingly specialized, resulting in true multicellular organisms. With the ozone layer absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation, life colonized the surface of Earth.


1. Grammar Revision. Find in the text and translate the sentences with:


    1. Infinitive

    2. Infinitive constructions


2. Answer the questions.


  1. How would you define the biosphere?

  2. How much biomass does the entire Earth contain?

  3. How many species of plants and animals have been identified to date?

  4. What is the biota?

  5. What are the limits of the “film of life”?

  6. When did the idea of biosphere originate? Who was the first to propose the term biosphere?

  7. When did the life on Earth appear?

  8. Why did some species become extinct?

  9. When did more complex life emerge?


3. Ask your partner some more questions on the text.
4. Substitute the words in bold type for their synonyms:

covering, appeared, change, combining, accidentally, life, delicate, emerged, circle


  1. The biosphere is the part of Earth's outer shell.

  2. The idea of biosphere originated rather casually more than a century ago.

  3. The biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships.

  4. Over nine-tenths of the total biomass on Earth is plants, on which animals depend very heavily for their existence.

  5. The number of individual species is constantly in some degree of flux.

  6. Part of the biosphere containing the highest concentration of living matter is the Earth’s thin and fragile “film of life”.

  7. The biosphere is a complex system of energy use and material cycling.

  8. The idea of biosphere originated rather casually more than a century ago.

  9. Life is thought to have occurred about 3.9 to 3.5 billion years ago.

5. Finish the sentences using the text.




  1. The biosphere is the part of Earth's outer shell …

  2. From the broadest geophysiological point of view, the biosphere is …

  3. Currently the entire Earth contains …

  4. Over nine-tenths of the total biomass on Earth is …

  5. More than 2 million species of …

  6. The number of individual species is constantly …

  7. The total number of species is presently …

  8. Biosphere is a relatively thin life-supporting layer around the Earth …

  9. Part of the biosphere containing the highest concentration of living matter …

  10. The biosphere is a complex system of …

  11. We can divide the biosphere into …

  12. The biotic part of the biosphere consisting of fauna and flora …

  13. The idea of biosphere originated rather casually …


6. Complete the definitions.


  1. … is the layer around the Earth in which all living organisms exist.

  2. … is the sum total of liquid and frozen water on or near the Earth’s surface.

  3. … is a region of gases, airborne particles, and water vapour enveloping the Earth. (airborne-переносимый по воздуху; envelope-окутывать)

  4. … is the solid Earth with rocks, soil and sediments on its crust. (sediments-осадочные породы, отложения)

  5. … is part of the biosphere containing the highest concentration of living matter.

  6. … is the biotic part of the biosphere.

  7. … is a branch of science which treats the world of nature at certain levels of biological organization.

  8. … is the functional unit in ecology which includes all the interactions of communities with both their biotic and abiotic environments.

(atmosphere, ecosystem, “film of life”, ecology, biosphere, biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere)
7. Translate.


  1. Биосфера – это часть внешней оболочки Земли, в пределах которой существует жизнь.

  2. Биосфера – это глобальная экологическая система, объединяющая все живые организмы и их взаимоотношения, включая взаимодействие с элементами литосферы, гидросферы и атмосферы.

  3. В настоящее время вся Земля содержит 75 миллиардов тонн биомассы, которая обитает в различных местах внутри биосферы.

  4. Более 9/10 всей биомассы Земли – это растения, от которых сильно зависит жизнь животных.

  5. Число существующих видов колеблется в пределах от нескольких миллионов до более 50 миллионов.

  6. Полагают, что жизнь на Земле возникла около 3.9-3.5 миллиардов лет назад.

  7. Биосфера – это сложная система преобразования энергии и круговорота веществ.

  8. Биосфера «работает» на энергии, поступающей в неё от Солнца.

  9. Толщина слоя биосферы, содержащего наивысшую концентрацию живого вещества (плёнка жизни), колеблется от нескольких метров до сотен метров.

  10. Окружающая среда Земли в то время была совершенно иной нежели сейчас.

  11. Виды, которые были не способны приспособиться к изменяющейся окружающей среде и конкуренции с другими видами, исчезли.


8. Summarize the text “Biosphere”. Use the following beginnings:

The text reports on…

The text touches upon…

A careful account is given to…

It is reported that…

Much attention is given to…

The text points out that…

The text deals with the problem of…

The text provides information on…

The text defines the phenomenon of…

The text covers such points as…
9. Work in pairs. Discuss the facts from the text. Use the following expressions:


    • The fact that … was unknown to me.

    • I didn’t know that …

    • I know that …, and you?

    • Was the fact that … known to you?

    • Have you ever heard about the fact that …?

    • It was interesting to learn that…




Каталог: upload -> iblock -> dcc
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iblock -> Технические требования
iblock -> Технологические карты
iblock -> Оптимизация процесса восстановления измененных и уничтоженных маркировочных обозначений на блоках двигателей транспортных средств
iblock -> Инструкция по эксплуатации Температурный gsm извещатель Grinson T7 Благодарим Вас за выбор температурного gsm извещателя Grinson T7
dcc -> Выкуп ценных бумаг – проблемы и решения


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