Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для бакалавров и специалистов экологического факультета 2 этап обучения Краснодар 2011 г


Find the information about an endangered species on the Internet. Retell it. Use the following questions as a plan



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6. Retell the text.


7. Find the information about an endangered species on the Internet. Retell it. Use the following questions as a plan:
- What is the species’ habitat?

- Why is it endangered?

- How many are left?

- What can be done to save it?



Reading for Translating
Biosphere 2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre (12,700 m2) structure originally built to be an artificial, materially-closed ecological system in Oracle, Arizona (USA) by Space Biosphere Ventures, a joint venture whose principal officers were John P. Allen, inventor and Executive Director, and Margret Augustine, CEO. Constructed between 1987 and 1991, it was built by John Ophus. It also explored the possible use of closed biospheres in space colonization, and allowed the study and manipulation of a biosphere without harming Earth's. The name comes from Earth’s biosphere, Biosphere 1, Earth's life system and the only biosphere currently known. Funding for the project came primarily from the joint venture’s financial partner, Ed Bass' Decisions Investment, and cost $200 million from 1985 to 2007, including land, support research greenhouses, test module and staff facilities.

At a size comparable to two and a half football fields, it remains the largest closed system ever created. The sealed nature of the structure allowed scientists to monitor the continually changing chemistry of the air, water and soil contained within. The health of the human crew was monitored by a medical doctor inside and a medical team outside.

Biosphere 2 contained several biomes: a 1,900 square meter rainforest, an 850 square meter ocean with a coral reef, a 450 square meter mangrove wetlands, a 1,300 square meter savannah grassland, a 1,400 square meter fog desert, a 2,500 square meter agricultural system, a human habitat, and a below-ground level technical infrastructure. Heating and cooling water circulated through independent piping systems and electrical power was supplied into Biosphere 2 from a natural gas energy center through airtight penetrations.

Biosphere 2 had two experiments, Missions 1 and 2. The first, with a crew of eight people, ran for two years 1991-93. The second mission with a crew of seven people was conducted March 1994-September 1994. In the course of that second mission, a dispute over management of the financial aspects of the project caused the on-site management to be locked out, and the mission itself to be ended prematurely.

In 1995, Columbia University took over management of the facility for research and as a campus until 2003. In 1996, they manipulated carbon dioxide levels for global warming research.

In June 5, 2007, the property including surrounding land, totaling 1,650 acres (6.7 km2), had been sold to a residential home developer for US$50 million. A development including homes and a resort hotel was planned for a portion of the land. The Biosphere itself remains open for tours.

On June 26, 2007, the University of Arizona announced it would take over research at the Biosphere 2. The announcement ended immediate fears that the famous glass vivarium would be demolished. University officials said private gifts and grants enabled them to cover research and operating costs for three years with the possibility of extending that funding for 10 years.
Speaking
The following is an extract of an interview with Dr. Boris Worm, Professor of Marine Biology at the Dow-Hauser University in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Read the dialogue and discuss the problem of marine ecosystems.
Mike: Thanks for joining us today Dr. Boris Worm. Can you give us a bit of a background of your work?
Dr. Worm: Sure, I'm a marine biologist. I studied Marine Biology and Biologic Oceanography back in Germany where I'm from originally, and about 10 years ago, I moved to Halifax, Nova Scotia where I still work today. I started being interested in ecology - so how the things in the ocean relate to the environment and to each other.

My work became focusing on the impacts we're having on ocean species and their supporting ecosystems, and that's mostly what I'm doing today.



Mike: It seems that the people who are engaged in fishing have always said, "Oh, don't worry; they're plenty of fish in the ocean." Right?

Dr. Worm: So I think there has always been a more optimistic and a more pessimistic view, and I think what we're trying to do today is try to find out where things really are. And I think there's a broad consensus now that fisheries worldwide are in trouble.

There are a lot of stresses on marine ecosystems, but there are also some success stories where people have managed to reduce our impact. I think it's important to see both sides of the coin. It's not all hopeless. The situation is dire, but also we have some ways of fixing it, which is important.



Mike: Isn't it your research, by the way, that has been widely quoted as predicting a collapse of fishing stocks in 50 years if we don't make these changes?

Dr. Worm: That's correct, in 2006 we looked at loss of species from ocean ecosystems. What we saw was that more and more of these fisheries were declining greatly in their catches – about 90% or more.

Mike: Isn't there pressure on the fishing industries then as the costal collapse; isn't there a tendency for them to just move farther offshore and explore more pristine ocean waters and start plundering those? Is that something that's real?

Dr. Worm: Yeah, well that's absolutely true. That's the historic trend and we have already expanded fishing operations all around the globe, and there's no ocean that has never been fished. And our human impact has really stretched to every little corner; even places in the Antarctica or very, very remote areas in the eastern Pacific have been fished and have been impacted a great deal.

Mike: Well I want to thank you for taking this time to join us.

Dr. Worm: Thanks and it was a pleasure to talk to you, good luck and all the best to you.

Unit 4

Protected Areas


“Big cities are chaotic.

And chaos for humans is the last step before conflict.

So, in the park, every kind of visual contradiction has been eliminated.”

~John Hench


Warm up
Protected areas include national parks and reserves.

What is a national park?

Read the following definitions:
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia:

An area set aside by a national government for the preservation of its natural environment. Most national parks are kept in their natural state.


Geography Dictionary:

An area less affected by human exploitation and occupation, with sites of particular scenic or scientific interest, which is protected by a national authority.
Wikipedia:

A national park is a reserve of natural or semi-natural land, declared or owned by a government, set aside for human recreation and enjoyment, animal and environmental protection and restricted from most development.


Советский энциклопедический словарь:

Территория (акватория), на которой охраняются ландшафты и уникальные объекты природы.


A National Park is 'national' because of the special value the area has for the whole nation. This value derives from their outstanding beauty, the recreation opportunities provided, and the special interaction between humans and nature that they represent.
What is a nature (natural) reserve?
Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

A natural reserve is an area of land which is protected in order to keep safe the animals and plants that live there, often because they are rare.


Collins Dictionary

An area of land that is protected and managed in order to preserve a particular type of habitat and its flora and fauna which are often rare or endangered.


Советский энциклопедический словарь

Участок земли либо водной поверхности, на котором имеются природные объекты особой научной или культурной ценности. В заповеднике запрещается всякая деятельность, нарушающая природные комплексы или угрожающая их сохранению.




    • Have you ever been to a national park or a reserve?


Vocabulary


      1. array масса, множество

      2. designation имя, название

      3. reserve заповедник

      4. landscape ландшафт

      5. embrace включать, охватывать

      6. restrictive ограничительный, сдерживающий

      7. emphasis особое внимание

      8. boundary граница

      9. cornerstone краеугольный камень

      10. refuge убежище

      11. benchmark критерий

      12. further away более отдалённый

      13. gain приобретать

      14. vulnerable ранимый, уязвимый

      15. sacred священный

      16. set up учреждать

      17. dedicate посвящать

      18. precise точный, чёткий

      19. objective цель

      20. feature особенность, характерная черта

      21. sustainable устойчивый, поддерживающий


Word Study
1 .Give the Russian equivalents to the following words:
management, integrate, visitors, traditional, lifestyle, marine, ocean, strategy, intensely, endemic, recreation, conserve, local, private, territorial, extraterritorial, legal, effective, category, contain, monument, specific
2. Guess the meaning of the underlined words. Translate the sentences.
1).Protected areas are designed to preserve typical and unique natural landscapes. 2) Fully or partially excluded from economic use, they have special protection regime. 3) Preservation and development of protected areas is one of the priorities of state environmental policy. 4) The most interesting researches on ecology of animals and birds were carried out in reserves. 5) Many Russian geographers, zoologists, botanists and ecologists have had a good school in reserves.

6) The system of Russian state natural reserves is globally recognized. 7) Natural parks of regional importance are a relatively new category of special protected areas in Russia.


3. Translate the following word combinations:
a wide array of land and water designations; the best known; wilderness area; wildlife management area; landscape protected area; different management approaches; much less restrictive approaches; traditional human lifestyles; biodiversity conservation; to maintain functioning natural ecosystems; threatened or endemic species; vulnerable human societies; sacred natural sites; dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity; management objectives; specific natural features
4. Match the word from list A with its definition in list B.

A

B


  1. protected

  2. designation

  3. embrace

  4. boundary

  5. refuge

  6. vulnerable

  7. sacred

  8. objective

    1. kept safe

    2. shelter or protection from danger

    3. line that marks a limit; dividing line

    4. treated with great respect or reverence

    5. object aimed at; purpose

    6. include

    7. name, title or description

    8. not protected against attack




Каталог: upload -> iblock -> dcc
iblock -> Часы-смартфон
iblock -> Руководство пользователя для телефона Apple iPhone 6
iblock -> Руководство по эксплуатации Методика калибровки Технические характеристики. Минимальный радиус кривизны поверхностей контролируемых изделий, 6мм
iblock -> Технические требования
iblock -> Технологические карты
iblock -> Оптимизация процесса восстановления измененных и уничтоженных маркировочных обозначений на блоках двигателей транспортных средств
iblock -> Инструкция по эксплуатации Температурный gsm извещатель Grinson T7 Благодарим Вас за выбор температурного gsm извещателя Grinson T7
dcc -> Выкуп ценных бумаг – проблемы и решения


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