Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для бакалавров и специалистов экологического факультета 2 этап обучения Краснодар 2011 г


Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below



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5. Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below:

rays, ozone layer, latitude, greenhouse gases, greenhouse effect, contributing, trend




  1. The … is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet's lower atmosphere and surface.

  2. The major … are water vapor, which causes about 36–70 percent of the greenhouse effect; carbon dioxide (CO2), which causes 9–26 percent; methane (CH4), which causes 4–9 percent; and ozone (O3), which causes 3–7 percent.

  3. The main positive … in global warming is the tendency to increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, a significant greenhouse gas.

  4. Most scientists accept that humans are … to observed climate change.

  5. The … of the Earth's atmosphere plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface.

  6. The climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially …

  7. The sun's … hit the equator at a direct angle between 23 ° N and 23 ° S latitude.

Reading for Speaking and Discussing


Read the text and choose the title to each part:


    1. Causes of climate change

    2. Impacts of climate change

    3. Human causes

    4. Definition of climate change

    5. Natural causes

Climate Change


1. Ever since the earth came into being there has been a climate system. The climate of a place is the average weather that it experiences over a period of time. The factors that determine the climate at a location are the rainfall, sunshine, wind, humidity, and temperature.

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. It can be a change in the average weather or a change in the distribution of weather events around an average (for example, greater or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole Earth.

While changes in the weather may occur suddenly and noticeably, changes in the climate take a long time to settle in and are therefore less obvious. Throughout the earth's history there have been changes in the climate. There have been well-marked cold and hot periods and all life forms adapted naturally to this change.

Over the last 150-200 years climate change has been taking place too rapidly and certain plant and animal species have found it hard to adapt. Human activities are said to be responsible for the speed at which this change has occurred and it is now a cause of worry to scientists.

The atmosphere surrounding the earth is made up of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and the remainder, 1%, is made up of the greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, water vapour, and nitrous oxide. These greenhouse gases act as a blanket and protect it from the harmful ultra violet rays of the sun. They can also be regarded as natural controllers of the earth's temperature system.

2. The earth's climate is dynamic and always changing through a natural cycle. What the world is more worried about is that the changes that are occurring today have been speeded up because of man's activities. These changes are being studied by scientists all over the world who are finding evidence from tree rings, pollen samples, and sea sediments. The causes of climate change can be divided into two categories - those that are due to natural causes and those that are created by man.

3. There are a number of natural factors responsible for climate change. Some of the more prominent ones are continental drift, volcanoes, ocean currents, the earth's tilt, and comets and meteorites. Any or all of these phenomena can have an impact on the climate.

4. The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century saw the large-scale use of fossil fuels for industrial activities. These industries created jobs and over the years, people moved from rural areas to the cities. This trend is continuing even today. More and more land that was covered with vegetation has been cleared to make way for houses. Natural resources are being used extensively for construction, industries, transport, and consumption. Consumerism (our increasing want for material things) has increased by leaps and bounds, creating mountains of waste. Also, our population has increased to an incredible extent.

All this has contributed to a rise in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas supply most of the energy needed to run vehicles, generate electricity for industries, households, etc. The energy sector is responsible for about ¾ of the carbon dioxide emissions, 1/5 of the methane emissions and a large quantity of nitrous oxide. It also produces nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) which are not greenhouse gases but do have an influence on the chemical cycles in the atmosphere that produce or destroy greenhouse gases.

5. Climate change is a threat to mankind! Since the end of the 19th century the earth's average surface temperature has increased by 0.3-0.6 °C. Over the last 40 years, the rise has been 0.2-0.3 °C. Recent years have been the warmest since 1860, the year when regular instrumental records became available.

Some important aspects of our lives can be affected through changes in weather patterns.

They are:

Agriculture

Extreme weather conditions such as high temperature, heavy rainfall, floods, droughts, etc. will also affect crop production.

Weather

A warmer climate will change rainfall and snowfall patterns, lead to increased droughts and floods, cause melting of glaciers and polar ice sheets, and result in accelerated sea- level rise. Coastal areas and small islands are among the most densely populated parts of the world. They are also the most threatened because of rises in sea level that global warming may cause

Health

Global warming will directly affect human health by increasing cases of heat stress.



Forests and wildlife

Ecosystems sustain the earth's entire storehouse of species and genetic diversity. Plants and animals in the natural environment are very sensitive to changes in climate. The ecosystems that are most likely to be affected by this change are the ones in the higher latitudes, the tundra forests. Polar regions will feel the impact of warming more than others. Interiors of continents will experience more warming than the coastal regions.

Marine life

Corals are known as the tropical forests of the oceans and sustain diverse life forms.

As ocean waters in the tropics become warmer, the damage to coral reefs seems to be increasing. These corals are very sensitive to changes in water temperature, which causes bleaching.

There is still a great deal that we do not understand about our climate, and about how our activities will change it. But one thing can be said loud and clear: if we wait to get answers to these questions, it will probably be too late!


1. Grammar Revision. Find in the text and translate the complex sentences with:
Conditional Subordinate Clause
2. Answer the questions.


  1. What is the climate of a place?

  2. What are the factors that determine the climate?

  3. What is climate change?

  4. Why is it hard for certain plants and animals to adapt to climate change?

  5. What can be regarded as natural controllers of the earth's temperature system?

  6. What are the causes of climate change?

  7. What are the impacts of climate change?


3. Ask your partner some more questions on the text.
4. Substitute the words in bold type for their synonyms:

considered, contributing to, has, relate, concern, emerged, accelerated, tendency, visible


  1. Ever since the earth came into being there has been a climate system.

  2. The climate of a place is the average weather that it experiences over a period of time.

  3. Climate change may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole Earth.

  4. While changes in the weather may occur suddenly and noticeably, changes in the climate take a long time to settle in and are therefore less obvious.

  5. Human activities are said to be responsible for the speed at which this change has occurred and it is now a cause of worry to scientists.

  6. Greenhouse gases can also be regarded as natural controllers of the earth's temperature system.

  7. The changes that are occurring today have been speeded up because of man's activities.

  8. There are a number of natural factors responsible for climate change.

  9. This trend is continuing even today.

5. Finish the sentences using the text.




  1. The climate of a place is …

  2. The factors that determine the climate at a location are …

  3. Climate change is …

  4. Changes in the climate take a long time …

  5. Human activities are said to be responsible for …

  6. The atmosphere surrounding the earth is made up of …

  7. The greenhouse gases act as …

  8. The causes of climate change can be divided into …

  9. Some of the more prominent natural factors are …

  10. Any of them can have …

  11. Some important aspects of our lives can be affected through changes in weather patterns, such as: …


6. Complete the definitions.


  1. … includes the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elements in a given region over long periods of time.

  2. … is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation.

  3. … is a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years.

  4. … is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3).

  5. … are gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range.

  6. … is the state of the atmosphere as measured on a scale of hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or storm, clear or cloudy.

  7. … is a process by which radiative energy leaving a planetary surface is absorbed by some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases.

(climate, weather, ozone layer, climate change, greenhouse gases, greenhouse effect global warming)


7. Complete the sentences below with the appropriate words.
1) The earth's climate is changing and the world is becoming w_____________

2) Climate change is caused by h____________ activities.

3) Petrol, oil, and coal are called f ______________ ____________.

4) The burning of fossil fuels releases harmful g__________________ ____________.

5) One of the main greenhouse gases is __________________ _____________ (CO2).

6) Another harmful gas is called m_________________.

7) Greenhouse gases trap heat from the sun in the earth's a______________________.

8) As a result of the ice melting in the North and South Poles, the sea l_________ are rising.

9) An international agreement on climate change is called the K________ P___________.
8. Translate.


  1. Климат местности – это среднестатистическая погода, которая сохраняется в этой местности в течение определённого периода времени.

  2. Факторами, которые определяют климат местности, являются: выпадение дождя, солнце, ветер, влажность и температура.

  3. Изменение климата – это изменения в статистическом распределении погоды за промежуток времени протяжённостью от нескольких десятилетий до миллионов лет.

  4. Изменения климата могут ограничиваться одним районом, а могут происходить на всей Земле.

  5. За последние 150-200 лет изменения климата происходят так быстро, что некоторым растениям и животным трудно к ним приспособиться.

  6. Причины изменения климата могут быть разделены на две категории: природные и созданные человеком.

  7. К природным причинам относятся: континентальный дрейф, океанические течения, вулканы, разломы в Земле, кометы и метеориты.

  8. Все эти явления влияют на климат и вызывают его изменение.

  9. Учёные считают, что основной причиной изменения климата планеты является человеческая деятельность.

  10. Изменение климата – угроза человечеству!

  11. Изменения климата влияют на все аспекты нашей жизни: сельское хозяйство, погоду, здоровье, жизнь растений и животных.


9. Summarize the text “Climate Changes”. Use the following beginnings:

The text reports on…

The text touches upon…

A careful account is given to…

It is reported that…

Much attention is given to…

The text points out that…

The text deals with the problem of…

The text provides information on…

The text defines the phenomenon of…

The text covers such points as…

The effects of… on … are considered.


Reading for Understanding
1. Read the text and answer the question:
- How is the climate going to change in the future?
From 1980 to the end of the 21st century, temperatures are projected to increase by 1.8°C to 4.0°C.

The global average temperature is expected to increase by about 0.2°C per decade over the next two decades. Continuing greenhouse gas emissions at or above current rates would cause a further increase in global temperatures and many other climatic changes during the 21st century.

The best estimates for projected global temperature increases from the 1980s to the end of the 21st century range from 1.8°C (1.1 - 2.9°C) to 4°C (2.4 - 6.4°C).

Global average sea level is expected to rise by 18 to 59 cm by the end of the 21st century. Warming is expected to be greatest over land and at high northern latitudes and smallest over the Southern Ocean and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. Other projected changes include acidification of the oceans, reduced snow cover and sea ice, more frequent heat waves and heavy precipitation, more intense tropical cyclones, and slower oceanic currents.

Warming and sea level rise caused by human activities will continue for centuries, even if greenhouse gas concentrations were to be stabilized. If warming persists over many centuries, it could lead to a complete melting of the Greenland Ice sheet, increasing global sea levels by about 7m.
Notes:

melting - таяние

persist - удерживаться , сохраняться
2. Find in the text the equivalents to the following word combinations:
средняя температура планеты; за десятилетие; в следующие два десятилетия; выбросы парникового газа; дополнительные меры по сокращению (парниковых газов); средний уровень моря на планете; в высоких северных широтах; окисление океанов; снежный покров; сильные осадки
3. Select the statement that best expresses the main idea of the text.


    1. If warming persists over many centuries, it could lead to a complete melting of the Greenland Ice sheet.

    2. Continuing greenhouse gas emissions at or above current rates would cause a further increase in global temperatures that will lead to noticeable sea level rise, acidification of oceans, more intense tropical cyclones and slower ocean currents.

    3. From 1980 to the end of the 21st century, temperatures are projected to increase by 1.8°C to 4.0°C.


4. Is it true or false? Correct the wrong statements.


  1. From 1980 to the end of the 21st century, temperatures are projected to increase by 1.8°C to 4.0°C.

  2. The global average temperature is expected to decrease by about 0.2°C per decade over the next two decades.

  3. Global average sea level is expected to rise by 18 to 59 cm by the end of the 22nd century.

  4. Warming is expected to be greatest over the Southern Ocean and parts of the North

Atlantic Ocean.

  1. Other projected changes include acidification of the oceans, reduced snow cover and sea ice, more frequent heat waves and heavy precipitation, more intense tropical cyclones, and slower oceanic currents.

  2. Warming and sea level rise caused by natural events will continue for centuries, even if greenhouse gas concentrations were to be stabilized.

5. Retell the text.


6. Find on the Internet some more information about global warming and its effects. Retell it.

Reading for Translating


Climate Change – Threat to Our Planet
Climate change is already happening and represents one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing the planet.

The European Union is working actively for a global agreement to control climate change and is taking domestic action to achieve substantial reductions in its own contribution. It is also developing a European strategy for adapting to climate change.

The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) shows that the Earth's average surface temperature has risen by 0.76° C since 1850. Most of the warming over the past 50 years is very likely to have been caused by emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other 'greenhouse gases' from human activities.

Without action to reduce these emissions, the global average temperature is likely to rise by a further 1.8-4.0°C this century, and by up to 6.4°C in the worst - case scenario, the IPCC projects. Even the lower end of this range would take the temperature increase since pre-industrial times above 2°C - the threshold beyond which many scientists believe irreversible and possibly catastrophic changes would become more likely.

The European Union has long been at the forefront of international efforts to combat climate change and was instrumental in the development of the two United Nations climate treaties, the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, agreed in 1997.

The EU has also been taking steps to limit its greenhouse gas emissions since the early 1990s.

In 2000 the European Commission launched the European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) which has led to the adoption of a wide range of new policies and measures.

The Kyoto Protocol requires the 15 countries that were EU members at the time ('EU-15') to reduce their collective emissions in the 2008-2012 period to 8% below 1990 levels. Emissions monitoring and projections show that the EU-15 is well on track to meet this target.

In 2007 EU leaders endorsed an integrated approach to climate and energy policy and committed to transforming Europe into a highly energy-efficient, low carbon economy. They made a unilateral commitment that Europe would cut its emissions by at least 20% of 1990 levels by 2020. This commitment is being implemented through a package of binding legislation.

The EU has also offered to increase its emissions reduction to 30% by 2020, on condition that other major emitting countries in the developed and developing worlds commit to do their fair share under a future global climate agreement. This agreement should take effect at the start of 2013 when the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period will have expired.

The Copenhagen Accord reached in December 2009 represents a step towards such an agreement.
Speaking
Read, learn and act out the dialogues:

1.

Jane: That was a heavy storm we had last night, wasn’t it, Kate?



Kate: It was. You know that big poplar tree in front of our house, don’t you? One of the biggest branches came down with such a crash that we thought it would break our window-panes.

Jane: Really! We have been having this wretched weather for days and days already. I’m sick and tired of it.

Kate: So am I. I wish this weather would clear up. It’s about time we had some nice spring weather.

Jane: It’s April, you know. March winds, April showers bring forth May flowers.

Kate: I know, but we’ve had enough of them. Still, I suppose we shouldn’t complain. We had a good winter. Never had so many fine cold days before.

Jane: Yes, I enjoyed them too.


2.

Mr. Jones: Good morning, Mrs. Williams. How are you this morning?

Mrs. Williams: I’m quite all right, thank you, Mr. Jones. And how are you?

Mr. Jones: Fine too, thank you. Nice day, isn’t it?

Mrs. Williams: Absolutely lovely. Much warmer than yesterday, I believe, though a bit misty. Have you read the weather forecast for today, by the way?

Mr. Jones: Yes, I have. It says that the early morning mist is to clear before noon and the rest of the day will be bright and sunny with the temperature between 15 C and 17 C.

Mrs. Williams: Good, and what is the outlook for tomorrow?

Mr. Jones: It says there will be little change, so I believe we may have a few fine days after all.

Mr. Williams: Splendid! A fine weekend is just what we all need, don’t we?

Mr. Jones: Oh, yes, quite true. Good-bye, Mrs. Williams.

Mrs. Williams: Good-bye, Mr. Jones.

Unit 2


Population and the Environment
“Our generation has inherited an incredibly beautiful world

from our parents and they from their parents.

It is in our hands whether our children and their

children inherit the same world.

We must not be the generation responsible for

irreversibly damaging the environment.”

~ Richard Branson
Warm up
The first billion took from the dawn of humanity until 1830.

The second billion took only 100 years -- from 1830 to 1930.

Three billion more arrived in the next 60 years.

The next billion will take only 13 years (yes, just 13 years!) - unless there is a tremendous effort to slow world birthrates!

It is evident the environment is being severely damaged by the impact of rapidly growing populations and over-exploitation of the earth's natural resources.
- Is there a direct connection between population growth, human activities, the greenhouse effect and global warming? Why?

Vocabulary




      1. explorer исследователь

      2. splendor великолепие

      3. comparison сравнение

      4. result in иметь результатом

      5. challenge проблема, вызов

      6. pose ставить, предлагать

      7. constitute a threat представлять угрозу

      8. exhaustion истощение

      9. coastline береговая линия

      10. afflict причинять страдание, тревожить

      11. urgent срочный, крайне необходимый

      12. improve улучшать, совершенствовать

      13. impact удар, воздействие

      14. obvious очевидный

      15. at first glance на первый взгляд

      16. per capita consumption потребление на душу населения

      17. deplete истощать, исчерпывать

      18. previous предыдущий

      19. due to благодаря, из-за

      20. gross большой, крупный

      21. misuse неправильное использование

      22. It should be mentioned Нужно упомянуть

      23. worldwide по всему миру

      24. necessity необходимость

      25. assets имущество, богатство

      26. disaster бедствие, несчастье

      27. sustainable устойчивый, сбалансированный

Word Study


1. Give the Russian equivalents to the following words:
catastrophe, pressure, public, degradation, generate, regenerate, complex, proportion, majority, transform, quarter, period, dinosaur, urban, commerce, dramatically, resident, export, practice, exploit
2. Guess the meaning of the underlined words. Translate the sentences.
1) Scientists predict that by 2050 the population will be doubled. 2) The fact is that the rate of food production fell behind the population growth. 3) Urbanization is one of the most controversial problems of modern society. 4) As population growth slows, countries can invest more in education, health care, and other spheres that help improve living standards. 5) A dynamic economy also needs slower population growth. 6) Family planning programs play a key role. 7) We risk destroying our standard of living if we don’t control population growth.
3. Translate the following word combinations:
the famous explorer; the world's eyes; undersea world; said it best; environmental damage; under increasing pressure; at the same time; with rapid population growth; the urgent need; the richest fifth; an average American’s environmental impact; between one-third and one-half of the entire land surface; the extinction of the dinosaurs; two of every three species; due to the change in climate; humanity’s gross misuse of the earth’s resources; earth’s natural assets

4. Match the word from list A with its definition in list B.



A

B


  1. explorer

  2. challenge




  1. exhaustion

  2. pollution




  1. afflict

  2. waste




  1. deplete

  2. previous




  1. disaster

    1. person who travels into or through (a country, etc.) for the purpose of learning about it

    2. terrible accident

    3. useless; thrown away because not wanted

    4. total loss of strength

    5. problem

    6. that which makes smth dirty; destroys the purity

    7. use up

    8. cause bodily or mental trouble to

    9. coming earlier in time or order




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iblock -> Технические требования
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dcc -> Выкуп ценных бумаг – проблемы и решения


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