Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для бакалавров и специалистов экологического факультета 2 этап обучения Краснодар 2011 г


Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below



страница18/28
Дата22.06.2019
Размер0.8 Mb.
ТипУчебно-методическое пособие
1   ...   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   ...   28


5. Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below:

It should be mentioned, double, waste, fisheries, results in, population, depletion, challenge





  1. We began the XXI-st century with a global … of over 6.1 billion.

  2. A child born in New York will consume, pollute and … more in their lifetime than 50 children borne in developing country.

  3. America’s population will more than … by the year 2050.

  4. Each person requires energy, space and resources to survive, which … environmental losses.

  5. Most of the world 's ocean … are already being fished to their maximum capacities or are in decline.

  6. Declines in birthrates worldwide could ease the … of solving difficult environmental problems.

  7. … that despite slowing growth, world population still gains nearly 80 million people each year.

  8. Obviously, trends such as the loss of half of the planet’s forests, the … of most of its major fisheries, and the alteration of its atmosphere are closely related to the fact that human population expanded from mere millions in prehistoric times to more than 6 billion today.

Reading for Speaking and Discussing


Read the text and answer the question:

-Do you agree with Jacques Cousteau’s quote? Why?


Population and the Environment
Jacques Cousteau, the famous explorer who opened the world's eyes to the wonder and splendor of our undersea world said it best: "Population growth is the primary source of environmental damage." Of course, this is not a comparison to natural catastrophes that eventually result in a natural change of life and ecosystems, but rather it is a statement about the challenges human population poses for nature.

As the century begins, natural resources are under increasing pressure, constituting a threat to public health and development. Water shortages, soil exhaustion, loss of forests, air and water pollution, and degradation of coastlines afflict many areas. Most developed countries currently consume more resources, than they can regenerate. At the same time most developing countries with rapid population growth face the urgent need to improve their standards of living.

The link between population growth and the environmental impact seems obvious at first glance: more people consume more resources, damaging more of the earth and generate more waste. This is true, but the larger picture of the link is more complex. A very small proportion of the population consumes the majority of the world’s resources. The richest fifth consumes 86% of all goods and services. An average American’s environmental impact is 30 to 50 times that of the average citizen of a developing country such as India. Per capita consumption in all industrialized countries is permanently growing.

Human action has transformed between one-third and one-half of the entire land surface on the earth. We have lost more than one-quarter of the planet’s birds and two-thirds of major fisheries are fully exploited or depleted. We live in the period of the greatest extinction of plant and animal species since the extinction of the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago. Two of every three species are estimated to be in decline. In contrast to the previous extinctions which were due to the change in climate and sea level, the last one has begun because of humanity’s gross misuse of the earth’s resources.

It should be mentioned that worldwide about three-quarters of all current population growth is urban. As cities grow ever larger, their impact on the environment grows. Because commerce and trade have spread dramatically in recent years, city residents consume resources not just from the surrounding areas, but from around the world. Urban areas also export their wastes and pollutants, affecting environmental and health conditions far from the cities themselves.

It is necessary to balance the requirements of growing population with necessity of conserving earth’s natural assets. Improving living standards without destroying the environment is a global challenge. Slowing population growth would help improve living standards and would provide time to solve sustainability problems. Without practicing sustainable development humanity faces a deteriorating environment and may even invite ecological disaster.


1. Grammar Revision. Find in the text and translate the sentences with:
Comparatives and Superlatives
2. Answer the questions.


  1. What is the link between the population growth and the environment impact?

  2. What challenges afflict many areas? Why?

  3. What can you say about the level of consumption in different countries of the world?

  4. What are the causes behind the essential decline in the biodiversity?

  5. What part of all current population on the earth is urban?

  6. What basic requirements should be met to provide sustainable development?

  7. Do you think overpopulation is an important environmental issue? Why?


3. Ask your partner some more questions on the text.
4. Substitute the words in bold type for their synonyms:

disappearing, depletion, townspeople, influence, offering, pressing, worked out, investigator


  1. Jacques Cousteau, the famous explorer said that population growth is the primary source of environmental damage.

  2. As the century begins, natural resources are under increasing pressure, constituting a threat to public health and development.

  3. Water shortages, soil exhaustion, loss of forests, air and water pollution, and degradation of coastlines afflict many areas.

  4. Most developing countries with rapid population growth face the urgent need to improve their standards of living.

  5. The link between population growth and the environmental impact seems obvious at first glance.

  6. Two-thirds of major fisheries are fully exploited or depleted.

  7. Two of every three species are estimated to be in decline.

  8. City residents consume resources not just from the surrounding areas, but from around the world.

5. Finish the sentences using the text.




  1. Jacques Cousteau, the famous explorer said …

  2. As the century begins, natural resources are …

  3. Most developed countries currently …

  4. At the same time most developing countries face …

  5. The link between population growth and the environmental impact …

  6. This is true, but the larger picture of the link …

  7. A very small proportion of the population …

  8. Human action has transformed …

  9. We have lost more than one-quarter of …

  10. The last extinction has begun because …

  11. As cities grow ever larger, …

  12. It is necessary …

  13. Without practicing sustainable development …

6. Translate.



  1. Известный исследователь Жак Кусто сказал, что рост населения – это основной источник разрушения окружающей среды.

  2. Нехватка воды, истощение почвы, утрата лесов, загрязнение воздуха и воды являются проблемой многих территорий.

  3. В настоящее время большинство развитых стран потребляет больше ресурсов, чем могут произвести.

  4. В то же время большинство развивающихся стран сталкиваются с острой необходимостью улучшения жизненных стандартов.

  5. На первый взгляд, связь между ростом населения и его воздействием на окружающую среду кажется очевидной.

  6. Однако картина гораздо сложнее.

  7. Очень маленькая часть населения потребляет большинство мировых ресурсов.

  8. Мы живём во время величайшего исчезновения животных и растений.

  9. По мере роста городов их влияние на окружающую среду растёт.

  10. Жители городов потребляют ресурсы не только с прилегающих территорий, но и со всего мира.

  11. Городские территории также экспортируют отходы и загрязнители, отрицательно влияющие на окружающую среду далеко за их пределами.

  12. Улучшение жизненных стандартов без разрушения окружающей среды – это мировая проблема.


7. Summarize the text “Population and the Environment”. Use the following beginnings:

The text reports on…

The text touches upon…

A careful account is given to…

It is reported that…

Much attention is given to…

The text points out that…

The text deals with the problem of…

The text provides information on…

The text defines the phenomenon of…

The text covers such points as…

The effects of… on … are considered.


8. Work in pairs. Speak and express your opinion on the facts below. Use the following expressions:

I agree (don’t agree) that…

I think that …

In my view (opinion)…




  1. Jacques Cousteau’s words "Population growth is the primary source of environmental damage" is a statement about the challenges human population poses for nature.

  2. The link between population growth and the environmental impact seems obvious only at first glance.

  3. Slowing population growth would help improve living standards and would provide time to solve sustainability problems.

Reading for Understanding


1. Read the text and choose the headline:


    1. A Variety of Species

    2. Population and Wildlife

    3. Overexploitation

    4. Over-harvesting

There are few places left on the planet where the impact of people has not been felt. We have explored and left our footprint on nearly every corner of the globe. As our population and needs grow, we are leaving less and less room for wildlife.

Wildlife is under threat from many different kinds of human activities, from directly destroying habitat to spreading invasive species and disease. Most ecosystems are facing multiple threats. Each new threat puts additional stress on already weakened ecosystems and their wildlife.

People have always depended on wildlife and plants for food, clothing, medicine, shelter and many other needs. But today we are taking more than the natural world can supply. The danger is that if we take too many individuals of a species from their natural environment, the species may no longer be able to survive. The loss of one species can affect many other species in an ecosystem. Overexploitation is the overuse of wildlife and plant species by people for food, clothing, pets, medicine, sport and many other purposes.

The hunting, trapping, collecting and fishing of wildlife at unsustainable levels is not something new. The passenger pigeon was hunted to extinction early in the last century, and over-hunting nearly caused the extinction of the American bison and several species of whales.

Today, the Endangered Species Act protects some U.S. species that were in danger from overexploitation, and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) works to prevent the global trade of wildlife. But there are many species that are not protected from being illegally traded.

What Wildlife Are Being Overexploited?

Fish and other aquatic species

As fishing boats have improved, the fishing industry has become very efficient at harvesting fish and shellfish. The industrialization of the fishing industry and the increasing world demand for seafood have people taking more fish from oceans, lakes and rivers than is sustainable.

Birds


Birds are collected or hunted for sport, food and the cage-bird pet trade.

Mammals


People have always hunted mammal species—for fur, food, sport, and for their horns. Mammals are also trapped for the pet trade, zoos and biomedical research. Today, illegal hunting still threatens many species, especially large mammals such as tigers, rhinoceros, bears and even primates, whose body parts are highly valued in some parts of the world for traditional medicine.

Amphibians

Amphibians are collected and shipped all over the world for the pet trade, medicine, education, scientific research and for food

Reptiles

Reptiles are harvested and traded around the world for their skins or shells, their eggs, meat, and for the pet trade

Plants


Plants are vital to our survival and are the foundation of most of the Earth’s ecosystems. People harvest plants for food, medicine, building materials, and as raw materials for making other products. But we are taking too many plants from the wild. A number of tree species, such as mahogany, are under threat because of over-harvesting.
Notes:

footprint -след passenger pigeon -странствующий голубь

invasive -агрессивный shellfish -моллюск

weakened -ослабленный cage -клетка

rhinoceros -носороги mahogany -красное дерево

trapping -охота с применением капканов horns –рога


2. Find in the text the equivalents to the following word combinations:
почти в каждом уголке земли; меньше и меньше места для дикой природы; различные виды человеческой деятельности; непосредственное разрушение места обитания; несбалансированные уровни; чрезмерная охота; мировая торговля дикими животными и растениями; ловля рыбы и моллюсков; торговля птицами для содержания в домашних клетках; основа большинства экосистем Земли; под угрозой
3. Select the statement that best expresses the main idea of the text.


    1. There are few places left on the planet where the impact of people has not been felt.

    2. Each new threat puts additional stress on already weakened ecosystems and their wildlife.

    3. Wildlife is under threat from many different kinds of human activities.

    4. Overexploitation is the main threat to wildlife and plant species.



4. Is it true or false? Correct the wrong statements.


  1. There are many places left on the planet where the impact of people has not been felt.

  2. Wildlife is under threat from many different kinds of natural events.

  3. Each new threat puts additional stress on already weakened ecosystems and their wildlife.

  4. People have never depended on wildlife and plants.

  5. The danger is that if we take too many individuals of a species from their natural environment, the species may no longer be able to survive.

  6. Overexploitation is the sustainable use of wildlife and plant species by people for food, clothing and other purposes.

  7. There are few species that are not protected from being illegally traded.

  8. Animals are vital to our survival and are the foundation of most of the Earth’s ecosystems.

5. Retell the text.


6. Find on the Internet the information about the demographic situation in Russia. Retell it.

Reading for Translating


Population Growth - Impacts on the Environment
Human population growth is the number one threat to the world's environment. Each person requires energy, space and resources to survive, which results in environmental losses. If the human population were maintained at sustainable levels, it would be possible to balance these environmental losses with renewable resources and regeneration. But our population is rapidly rising beyond the earth's ability to regenerate and sustain us with a reasonable quality of life. We are exceeding the carrying capacity of our planet.

We need to limit our growth voluntarily, and promote contraceptive use, before Nature controls our population for us with famines, drought and plagues. Our children's future depends on us.

The population reached 6.1 billion in 2000. The United Nation projects that world population for the year 2050 could range from 7.9 billion to 10.9 billion, depending on the actions we take today.

Population Facts - The Future in Just 22 Years

Scarce Water. Currently, 434 million people face either water stress or scarcity. Depending on future rates of population growth, between 2.6 billion and 3.1 billion people may be living in either water-scarce or water-stressed conditions by 2025.

Scarce Cropland. The number of people living in countries where cultivated land is critically scarce is projected to increase to between 600 million and 986 million in 2025.

Fisheries. Most of the world 's ocean fisheries are already being fished to their maximum capacities or are in decline.

Forests. Today over 1.8 billion people live in 36 countries with less than 0.1 hectare of forested land per capita, an indicator of critically low levels of forest cover. Based on the medium population projection and current deforestation trends, by 2025 the number of people living in forest-scarce countries could nearly double to 3 billion.

Global Warming. In 1998, the last year for which global data are available for both population and heat-trapping carbon dioxide emissions, per capita emissions of CO2 continued the upward trend that dominated the middle 1990s. When combined with growing world population, these increased per capita emissions accelerated the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere and, thus, future global warming.

Species Extinction. More than 1.1 billion people live in areas that conservationists consider the most rich in non-human species and the most threatened by human activities. While these areas comprise about 12 percent of the planet's land surface, they hold nearly 20 percent of its human population. The population in these biodiversity hotspots is growing at a collective rate of 1.8 percent annually, compared to the world's population 's annual growth rate of 1.3 percent.

Consumption Plus Population. When population growth is coupled with excessive consumption of resources, problems multiply. Currently, 20 percent of the world's people in the highest-income countries account for 86 percent of the total private consumption expenditures, while the poorest 20 percent consume only 1.3 percent. The unequal distribution of wealth and resources leads to oblivious waste and excess in the wealthy nations, and suffering in the resource-starved regions.

Speaking



Каталог: upload -> iblock -> dcc
iblock -> Часы-смартфон
iblock -> Руководство пользователя для телефона Apple iPhone 6
iblock -> Руководство по эксплуатации Методика калибровки Технические характеристики. Минимальный радиус кривизны поверхностей контролируемых изделий, 6мм
iblock -> Технические требования
iblock -> Технологические карты
iblock -> Оптимизация процесса восстановления измененных и уничтоженных маркировочных обозначений на блоках двигателей транспортных средств
iblock -> Инструкция по эксплуатации Температурный gsm извещатель Grinson T7 Благодарим Вас за выбор температурного gsm извещателя Grinson T7
dcc -> Выкуп ценных бумаг – проблемы и решения


Поделитесь с Вашими друзьями:
1   ...   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   ...   28


База данных защищена авторским правом ©vossta.ru 2019
обратиться к администрации

    Главная страница