Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для бакалавров и специалистов экологического факультета 2 этап обучения Краснодар 2011 г


The interview of a correspondent of “Time” with Rwandan President Paul Kagame



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The interview of a correspondent of “Time” with Rwandan President Paul Kagame


(extract)
Read the dialogue and answer the questions:
- What measure is undertaken to limit birthrate in Rwanda? Is it efficient?

- What other measures can be offered?


Time: There are some analyses of the genocide that suggest the background to the ethnic division was overpopulation. Too many people, and not enough resources. If that's true, then development becomes a way to eliminate the divisions of the past. If people prosper, they don't fight any more. Do you agree with that?
Kagame: I don't think it's correct that the genocide happened as a result of overpopulation. The seeds of genocide were planted here six or seven decades ago, when the country was not overpopulated. For example in 1932, when the Belgians introduced the identity card, to make a difference between a Hutu and Tutsi.
Time: One focus of yours is population control. You're trying to limit families to three children.
Kagame: We are not forcing people. There is no law. We are encouraging people by showing the benefit of smaller families. Our population growth is very high. And Rwanda is already one of the most crowded countries in the world. As much as the economy is growing and expect 6.5% this year population growth cuts a deep hole in that. And with the levels of poverty we have, the growth is simply unsustainable. The population is 9 million now, but in 10 years, it could be double. So we have to be careful. We are trying to formulate incentives for people to have fewer children. But it all starts with education.

Unit 3


Traffic and Air Pollution
"I can't imagine a right more basic than the right to breathe clean air.

We've debated for years how that might be possible.

Now that we know it is, will we have the courage

and the conviction to get there?"

~ Ed Begley
Warm up


    • Have you ever heard someone say they are going outside "to get a breath of fresh air"?

    • Have you ever tried to imagine what life would be like if the air were so dirty that people couldn't "get a breath of fresh air"?

    • How does air become dirty?

Humans probably first experienced harm from air pollution when they built fires in poorly ventilated caves. Since then we have gone on to pollute more of the earth's surface. Until recently, environmental pollution problems have been local and minor because of the Earth's own ability to absorb and purify minor quantities of pollutants. The industrialization of society, the introduction of motorized vehicles, and the explosion of the population are factors contributing toward the growing air pollution problem. At this time it is urgent to find methods to clean up the air.


Vocabulary


  1. route маршрут

  2. congestion перегруженность, пробка

  3. escalate расширять

  4. cut down рубить (деревья)

  5. exhaust fumes выхлопные газы

  6. breathe дышать

  7. hang (hung, hung) висеть

  8. combustion сгорание

  9. engine двигатель

  10. moderate небольшой, умеренный

  11. drowsiness сонливость

  12. impair ухудшать, портить

  13. alertness живость, активность

  14. vehicle транспортное средство

  15. cough кашель, кашлять

  16. suspend подвешивать

  17. minute мельчайший

  18. solid particles твёрдые частицы

  19. lead свинец

  20. settle оседать

  21. gasoline бензин

  22. emissions выбросы, выделения

  23. install устанавливать

  24. power снабжать, усиливать

  25. storage batteries аккумуляторные батареи

  26. charge заряжать


Word Study
1. Give the Russian equivalents to the following words:
situation, smog, fragment, hydrocarbon, carcinogenic, concentrations, mental, physical, combine, ozone, ground, photochemical, allergy, motor, toxic, accumulate, catalytic converters, strategy, battery, electric
2. Guess the meaning of the underlined words. Translate the sentences.
1) Pollution is one of the most urgent problems of nowadays. 2) For thousands of years people lived in harmony with the environment. 3) It seemed to people that the resources of nature had no end or limit. 4) Every year the atmosphere is polluted by about 1000 tons of industrial dust and other harmful substances. 5) Certainly, the strategy for lead pollution control exists. 6) The quality of atmospheric air is the most important factor influencing the health, the sanitary and epidemiological situation. 7) The high level of air pollution in these territories was observed in the last years. 8) The federal programs of social-ecological safety were realized in the Samara Region.
3. Translate the following word combinations:
from here and now; routes into holiday weekends; serious congestion; to cut down trees; exhaust fumes from cars; difficulty in breathing; to hang in the air; combustion of fuel; hydrocarbon fragments; at moderate concentrations; to cause drowsiness; to impair mental and physical alertness; in vehicle exhausts; traffic-congested cities; poorly maintained; to suffer from coughs; due to the effects of ozone; suspended in air minute solid particles; cause lead poisoning; to run on unleaded gasoline; powered by storage batteries
4. Match the word from list A with its definition in list B.

A

B


  1. route

  2. congestion




  1. breathe

  2. fuel




  1. engine

  2. drowsiness




  1. install

  2. minute




  1. gasoline




    1. way taken or planned from one place to another

    2. petrol; motor spirit

    3. machine that converts energy into power or motion

    4. take air into the lungs and send it out again

    5. very small

    6. material for producing heat or other forms of energy

    7. being too full, overcrowded

    8. place, fix in position for use

    9. half-asleep condition


5. Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below:

pollutants, air quality, urban areas, road traffic, at ground-level, respiratory diseases, vehicles, allergies, particles




  1. Air pollution can cause …

  2. …, ozone can be harmful to plants, animals, and humans.

  3. Air can be polluted by … such as dust, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets.

  4. Indoor … also requires attention because this is where we spend most of our time.

  5. Asthma and … are increasing in many European countries.

  6. In Europe, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutes the air mainly as a result of … and energy production.

  7. Motor vehicles engines produce a number of air … that pose risks to your health.

  8. The number of … on Canada's roads and highways has increased over the years.

  9. Traffic emissions are higher in … because of the numbers of cars and trucks on the roads.

Reading for Speaking and Discussing


Read the text and answer the question:

- What is smog and why is it poisonous?


Traffic and Air Pollution
Cars are wonderful, aren’t they? They free us from here and now, they open up routes into holiday weekends, and they turn difficulties of a journey into the pleasures of a trip. However, a continuous increase in the number of cars leads to serious congestion and escalates pollution caused by cars. Governments build new roads trying to improve the situation but this means that they cut down trees and destroy more of the countryside.

The car is one of the biggest polluters today. Exhaust fumes from cars are the main cause of bad air quality, which can make people feel ill and have difficulty in breathing. The problem is especially bad in some cities where on days, when there is not much wind, a brown layer of smog hangs in the air. The relatively inefficient combustion of fuel in a car engine causes many hydrocarbon fragments to be left unburned. These fragments help to form smog and are believed to be carcinogenic. The incomplete combustion of fuel produces also carbon monoxide (CO). It is poisonous and at moderate concentrations can cause drowsiness and impair mental and physical alertness.

Hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in vehicle exhausts combine with one another in sunlight to produce ozone. The ground level ozone is a major air pollutant. The photochemical smog is worst in traffic-congested cities on hot, dry summer days. It is especially common when the vehicle engines are old and poorly maintained, as often occurs in developing countries. In some overpopulated cities such as Mexico-City and San Paulo almost all children suffer from coughs and different forms of allergies. This is mainly due to the effects of ozone and other motor vehicle pollutants.

Air in large cities contains a great deal of dust – suspended in air minute solid particles. Some of them are toxic and can contain lead. The lead is emitted in tiny particles, which take a long time to settle and, if breathed in, can accumulate in the body and cause lead poisoning. Today more and more cars are made to run on unleaded gasoline.

The toxic emissions from car exhausts can be reduced considerably by installing catalytic converters on the engines. Other strategy to solve the problem is to use electric cars powered by storage batteries. However, the storage batteries currently available have very limited capacity and require frequent charging.

1. Grammar Revision. Find in the text and translate the sentences with:
Modal verbs
2. Answer the questions.


  1. What are the main sources of air pollution?

  2. What substances are major air pollutants?

  3. What dangerous substances do car exhausts contain?

  4. Which of them are the most dangerous?

  5. In what connection would you put bad health problems and poor air quality?

  6. What diseases can be caused by air pollution?

  7. What age group of population is especially vulnerable to air pollution?

  8. What can be done to reduce air pollution caused by cars?


3. Ask your partner some more questions on the text.
4. Substitute the words in bold type for their synonyms:

interact, damage, consists of, average, particles, need, suspends, work, primarily


  1. The relatively inefficient combustion of fuel in a car engine causes many hydrocarbon fragments to be left unburned.

  2. Governments build new roads but this means that they cut down trees and destroy more of the countryside.

  3. The problem is especially bad in some cities where on days, when there is not much wind, a brown layer of smog hangs in the air.

  4. It is poisonous and at moderate concentrations can cause drowsiness.

  5. Hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in vehicle exhausts combine with one another in sunlight to produce ozone.

  6. This is mainly due to the effects of ozone and other motor vehicle pollutants.

  7. Air in large cities contains a great deal of dust – suspended in air minute solid particles.

  8. Today more and more cars are made to run on unleaded gasoline.

  9. However, the storage batteries currently available have very limited capacity and require frequent charging.

5. Finish the sentences using the text.




  1. The car is one …

  2. A continuous increase in the number of cars leads to …

  3. Exhaust fumes from cars are the main …

  4. The incomplete combustion of fuel …

  5. It is poisonous and at moderate concentrations …

  6. Hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in vehicle exhausts combine …

  7. The ground level ozone is …

  8. The photochemical smog is …

  9. In some overpopulated cities almost all children suffer …

  10. This is mainly due to the effects …

  11. Air in large cities contains …

  12. Some of them are toxic and …

  13. The lead is emitted in tiny particles, which can accumulate in the body and ...

  14. The toxic emissions from car exhausts can be reduced …

6. Translate.




  1. Постоянный рост количества автомобилей приводит к серьёзной загруженности на дорогах.

  2. На сегодняшний день автомобиль – один из самых больших загрязнителей.

  3. Выхлопные газы от автомобилей являются главной причиной плохого качества воздуха.

  4. Ситуация особенно ухудшается в городах, когда в безветренные дни бурый слой смога висит в воздухе.

  5. Относительно неэффективное сгорание топлива в двигателе автомобиля приводит к тому, что частицы углеводорода сгорают не полностью.

  6. Эти частицы способствуют образованию смога и считаются канцерогенными.

  7. Углеводороды и оксиды азота соединяются в выхлопных газах и под действием солнечного света образуют озон, который является главным загрязнителем воздуха.

  8. В некоторых перенаселённых странах почти все дети страдают от кашля и некоторых форм аллергии.

  9. Воздух в больших городах содержит огромное количество пыли – подвешенные в воздухе мельчайшие частицы.

  10. Некоторые из них токсичны и могут содержать свинец.

  11. Сегодня всё больше и больше автомобилей работает на бензине, не содержащем свинец.

  12. Токсичные выбросы от автомобилей могут быть значительно сокращены путём установки каталитических конверторов.

  13. Другим направлением решения проблемы является использование электромобилей, оснащённых аккумуляторными батареями.


7. Summarize the text “Traffic and Air Pollution”. Use the following beginnings:

The text reports on…

The text touches upon…

A careful account is given to…

It is reported that…

Much attention is given to…

The text points out that…

The text deals with the problem of…

The text provides information on…

The text defines the phenomenon of…

The text covers such points as…

The effects of… on … are considered.


8. Work in pairs. Speak and express your opinion on the facts below. Use the following expressions:

I agree (don’t agree) that…

I think that …

In my opinion …




  1. A car is a wonder of our life.

  2. Smog is a relatively new phenomenon.

  3. Toxic emissions from cars can be reduced.

Reading for Understanding


1. Read the text and choose the headline:


    1. Air Pollution Is a Problem for All of Us

    2. Power Plants Are Major Pollutants

    3. What You Can Do to Clean the Air

    4. How to Be More Environmentally Friendly

Air pollution is a problem for all of us. The average adult breathes about 3,400 gallons of air a day. Children are at greater risk because they are more active outdoors and their lungs are still developing. The elderly are also more sensitive to air pollution because they often have heart or lung diseases.

Although much of the pollution in our air comes from power plants, industrial sources and motor vehicles, the choices you, as an individual, make every day can increase or decrease air pollution and can protect or threaten your health. You have the power to change your home, transportation, and consumer habits to help reduce air pollution. Find out what you can do.


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