Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для бакалавров и специалистов экологического факультета 2 этап обучения Краснодар 2011 г


Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below



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5. Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below:

boundaries, lime, harmful, combustion, fossil fuels, mist, nitric and sulfuric acids




  1. Acid rain has … impacts on forests, freshwaters and soils, killing insect and aquatic life-forms as well as causing damage to buildings and human health.

  2. The effect of acid rain on food crops is minimized by the application of … and fertilizers to replace lost nutrients.

  3. "Acid rain" is a term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposition from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of ...

  4. Acid rain results from both natural sources, such as volcanoes, and man-made sources, primarily emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) resulting from fossil fuel ...

  5. When sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released from power plants and other sources, winds blow these compounds across state and national …, sometimes over hundreds of miles.

  6. If the acid chemicals in the air are blown into areas where the weather is wet, the acids can fall to the ground in the form of rain, snow, fog, or ...

  7. The source of the acids released to the atmosphere is largely the combustion of … that produce harmful gases such as oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.

Reading for Speaking and Discussing


Read the text and answer the question:
- What problem is a much bigger challenge nowadays than acid rain?

Acid Rain


When it rains, it is said that God is showering all his love on Mother Nature, but when it is acid rain, perhaps God is cursing the ruthless manner in which man is exploiting the nature.

What is acid rain?

Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic.

Acid rain is a harmful and visible side effect of air pollution caused by contaminating chemicals entering the environment at unsustainable levels.

A primary cause of acid rain is the burning of fossil fuels: the gases released during the combustion process (in particular nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide) can in high concentrations react with the water in clouds to form sulphuric and nitric acids. Acid rain can be carried long distances by the wind when in 'wet' form, but it has not always appeared only as rain: it can also take the form of snow, mist and dry dust.

Acid rain has the potential to be extremely harmful to both the natural and built environments. As well as the obvious consequences of killing plant life and damaging buildings, acid rain increases the acidity of the soil and water, causing extensive and long-lasting agricultural and ecological damage.

Scientists and engineers have developed ways to reduce the acidity of rain. For example, several kinds of devices remove sulfur and nitrogen compounds from fuels or industrial emissions before they reach the atmosphere. Adding lime to lakes and rivers and their drainage temporarily neutralize their acidity. But the neutralization may have harmful side effects.

The term 'acid rain' was used as long ago as 1858 to mean rain made more acidic by acid gas pollution.

However, the issue of acid rain first came to the attention of the international community in the late 1960s, having been identified in certain areas of southern Scandinavia, where it was damaging forests. The matter quickly became an international issue when it was discovered that the acid deposits in these areas were a result of heavy pollution in the UK and other parts of northern Europe.

Acid rain and air pollution emerged from the industrial boom of the early 1900s and the increasing levels of chemical production associated with these processes. The building of taller industrial chimneys from the 1960s was largely held to be responsible for pollutants generated in the UK blowing as far as Scandinavia.

The Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution was adopted in 1979. The Convention covers Europe and North America and calls on countries to "to limit and, as far as possible, gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution".

Emissions from industrial sources dropped substantially during the 1990s due to a combination of European Directives forcing the installation of desulphurisation systems and the move away from the utilization of fuels such as coal. The use of catalytic converters in cars has also helped to reduce nitrogen oxide levels, although there has been a continuing increase in traffic volumes.

Despite the steps taken to combat air pollution and the relative decline of the profile of this issue compared to other environmental concerns, acidification remains a major legacy problem for Europe.

In recent years acid rain has been replaced by a much bigger green spectre on the political stage: climate change. Concerns about the impact of CO2 emissions on the environment established themselves as a major headache for 21st century politicians. Acid rain, by contrast, appears to be a declining problem.


1. Grammar Revision. Find in the text and translate the sentences with:
Verbal Nouns

It is (Participle II) that …


2. Answer the questions.


  1. How would you define the term acid rain?

  2. What is the primary cause of acid rain?

  3. Does acid rain appear only as rain?

  4. What are the harmful effects of acid rain?

  5. How can the acidity of rain be reduced?

  6. When did the issue of acid rain first come to the attention of the international community? Why?

  7. What is the goal of the Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution adopted in 1979?

  8. Emissions from industrial sources dropped substantially during the 1990s. Why?


3. Ask your partner some more questions on the text.
4. Substitute the words in bold type for their synonyms:

descended, adverse, to decrease, polluting, move away, treating, appeals to, interact, problem, fight


  1. When it is acid rain, perhaps God is cursing the ruthless manner in which man is exploiting the nature.

  2. Acid rain is a harmful and visible side effect of air pollution.

  3. Acid rain is caused by contaminating chemicals entering the environment at unsustainable levels.

  4. The gases released during the combustion process can in high concentrations react with the water in clouds to form sulphuric and nitric acids.

  5. Scientists and engineers have developed ways to reduce the acidity of rain.

  6. Several kinds of devices remove sulfur and nitrogen compounds from fuels or industrial emissions

  7. The issue of acid rain first came to the attention of the international community in the late 1960s.

  8. The Convention covers Europe and North America and calls on countries to "to limit and, as far as possible, gradually reduce and prevent air pollution.

  9. Emissions from industrial sources dropped substantially during the 1990s.

  10. Despite the steps taken to combat air pollution, acidification remains a major legacy problem for Europe.

5. Finish the sentences using the text.




  1. Acid rain is a rain or any other form of …

  2. Acid rain is a harmful and visible side-effect of …

  3. A primary cause of acid rain is …

  4. Acid rain has not always appeared only as rain: it can also …

  5. Acid rain can be extremely harmful to …

  6. Scientists and engineers have developed ways to …

  7. Adding lime to lakes and rivers and their drainage areas …

  8. The issue of acid rain first came to the attention of the international community in …

  9. The Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution adopted in 1979 calls on countries …

  10. The use of catalytic converters in cars has also helped …

  11. Despite the steps taken to combat air pollution, acidification …

  12. In recent years acid rain has been replaced by …

6. Translate.




  1. Что такое кислотный дождь?

  2. Кислотный дождь – это дождь или любой другой вид осадков, который имеет повышенную кислотность.

  3. Кислотный дождь – это вредный и видимый результат загрязнения воздуха.

  4. Причиной кислотного дождя является проникновение загрязняющих химических веществ в окружающую среду.

  5. Основной причиной кислотного дождя является сжигание природного топлива.

  6. Выделяющиеся в процессе сгорания оксиды азота и серы в больших концентрациях могут взаимодействовать с водой, образуя азотную и серную кислоту.

  7. Кислотный дождь может переноситься ветром на большие расстояния.

  8. Кислотный дождь оказывает разрушительное воздействие как на естественную, так и созданную человеком окружающую среду.

  9. Учёные и инженеры разработали способы уменьшения кислотности дождя.

  10. Выбросы от промышленных источников значительно сократились в 1990-х годах.

  11. Несмотря на шаги, предпринимаемые для борьбы с загрязнением воздуха, окисление остаётся главной проблемой для Европы.


7. Summarize the text “Acid Rain”. Use the following beginnings:

The text reports on…

The text touches upon…

A careful account is given to…

It is reported that…

Much attention is given to…

The text points out that…

The text deals with the problem of…

The text provides information on…

The text defines the phenomenon of…

The text covers such points as…

The effects of… on … are considered.


8. Work in pairs. Speak and express your opinion on the facts below. Use the following expressions:

I agree (don’t agree) that…

I think that …

I am sure …




  1. At present scientists and ecologists more often use the term “acid deposition” instead of “acid rain”.

  2. Air pollution in one country can become acid rain in another country.

  3. Acid rain has a number of adverse effects.

  4. Scientists and engineers try to reduce acidity, but the measures are not sufficient.

Reading for Understanding


1. Read the text and choose the headline:


    1. Acid Rain Effects on Plants

    2. Acid Rain Effects

    3. Acid Rain Effects on Human Health

    4. Solutions to Reduce Acidity

Acid rain has a negative effect on plants and animals. Once the acid gets into the water cycle it can cause the acidification of lakes and streams. The National Surface Water Survey (NSWS) identified over a thousand lakes and thousands of streams in the United States, where some form of acidification has taken place. Of these lakes and streams, 75 percent of the acidity in the lakes was directly due to acid rain. 50 percent of the streams had been affected by acid rain. Many areas of the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada contain lakes and streams affected by acidification from acid rain.

Changes in the pH of lakes and streams affected by acid rain can result in a decrease in the variety of fish, plants and animals living in or near the water. Some animals and plants cannot tolerate the higher levels of acid. Snails, clams and bass are examples of animals that can only tolerate a small increase in acidity.

Acid rain destroys trees and plants by causing damage to leaves and dissolving nutrients in the surrounding soil. Trees in higher elevations, have a greater risk for damage due to acid rain because they have greater exposure to clouds carrying sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide.

Acid rain can also have a devastating effect on man-made structures, such as those made of stone and metal. Bronze statutes and marble monuments are deteriorated by acid rain. Costly repairs and maintenance are required to clean acidic compounds resulting from dry deposition collecting on buildings.

One important misconception to clear up about acid rain is its direct harm to humans. Acid rain falls from the sky just like regular rain, without odor or taste. Acid rain is not directly harmful to humans. Yet, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are harmful pollutants before they combine with water and oxygen to form acid rain. These gases cause harmful particles that can be inhaled by humans, causing lung and heart disorders.


Notes:

tolerate терпеть, выносить elevation высота

clam морской моллюск devastating опустошительный,

разрушительный

bass окунь inhale вдыхать

dissolve растворять


2. Find in the text the equivalents to the following word combinations:
проникать в водный цикл; более тысячи озёр; небольшое увеличение кислотности; вызывая разрушение листьев; растворяя питательные вещества в почве; расположенность к облакам; сделанные из камня и металла; мраморные памятники; дорогостоящие реставрации; сухие отложения; прямой вред людям; без запаха и вкуса; лёгочные и сердечные заболевания
3. Select the statement that best expresses the main idea of the text.


    1. Acid rain has a negative effect on plants and animals.

    2. Trees in higher elevations, have a greater risk for damage due to acid rain.

    3. Acid rain causes direct harm to humans.

    4. Acid rain affects plants, animals, and man-made structures.

4. Is it true or false? Correct the wrong statements.




  1. Acid rain has a negative effect on plants and animals.

  2. 75 percent of the acidity in the lakes in the United States was directly due to air pollution.

  3. Changes in the pH of lakes and streams affected by acid rain can result in an increase in the variety of fish, plants and animals living in or near the water.

  4. Snails, clams and bass can tolerate a large increase in acidity.

  5. Acid rain destroys trees and plants by causing damage to leaves and dissolving nutrients in the surrounding soil.

  6. Trees in lower elevations, have a greater risk for damage.

  7. Costly repairs and are required to clean acidic compounds resulting from wet deposition collecting on buildings.

  8. Acid rain is directly harmful to humans.

5. Retell the text.


6. Find on the Internet the information about the problem of acid rain in Russia. Retell it.
Reading for Translating
Is Acid Rain Killing Off Wood Thrushes?
Robert Winkler

for National Geographic News

August 13, 2002
Acid rain may be forgotten, but it is not gone, and now researchers at the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology have linked it to the decline of the wood thrush, a forest bird known for its beautiful song.

The wood thrush breeds in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, and winters from central Mexico to Panama. Like many neotropical migrants, its population has been declining—nearly 2 percent a year between 1966 and 2000, according to Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data.

Using data from the BBS, from government studies of acid rain and soil acidity, the researchers did a statistical analysis and found that increased amounts of acid rain make wood thrushes less likely to breed.

Robert Angus Smith, a British chemist, coined the term "acid rain" in 1852, but it didn't enter the public consciousness until the 1980s, when its destructive effects on trees and lakes caught the attention of the media. Acid rain results when sulfur and nitrogen compounds—products of fossil fuel combustion—rise into the atmosphere and combine with water. Prevailing winds may carry acid rain far; much of the acid rain that has fallen in the Northeast, for example, originated in power plants of the Midwest.

In the United States, the Clean Air Act has brought about a reduction in the emissions that cause acid rain, but many eastern regions of North America continue to experience heavy, wet acidic deposition, and many bird species breeding in these areas show unexplained population declines. Further, long-term acid deposition has depleted the available calcium in acid-sensitive soils, and current emission standards may be insufficient to ensure the recovery of these soils.

Despite rising awareness of acid rain's more insidious effects, such as calcium depletion in soil, research on declining populations of North American birds has continued to focus on the dangers of habitat loss. Indeed, the Cornell study claims to be the first in North America to present large-scale evidence linking the population decline of a land bird to acid rain.

Acid rain, for example, can cause calcium to leach from the soil. The loss of this nutrient jeopardizes the breeding success of birds—to produce a clutch of eggs, a female bird may require up to 15 times more calcium than a pregnant mammal of equivalent size.

In areas where acid rain is most severe, the supplementary calcium-rich foods that female songbirds depend on—snail shells, isopods such as pill bugs, millipedes, and earthworms—may be in short supply. Lacking adequate calcium in their diet, females are more likely to lay eggs that are thin, brittle, and porous. If the weakened eggs can withstand the rigors of incubation, the parent birds will be hard-pressed to meet the very high calcium requirements of their growing nestlings.

Aside from depleting calcium, acid rain in soil can promote increased levels of potentially toxic aluminum, cadmium, and lead. Polluted soil, moreover, may slow the decomposition of leaf litter, which reduces the diversity and abundance of prey.
Speaking
Interview: Acid Rain and Climate Change

By Larry O'Hanlon


Acid rain is not something that was "solved" in the 1990s. Progress has been made, sure, but as long as we are burning fossil fuels there will be effects on the environment - in particular the acidification of lakes, streams and soils. Charles Driscoll is at the forefront of not only acid rain research, but he's very interested in how acid precipitation interacts with climate change.

Charles Driscoll is a professor of Environmental Systems Engineering. He is also director of the Center for Environmental Engineering. He's been working at reminding the media and the public that acid rain is not only a battle of the past, but one we are still fighting today.


Read the interview and discuss the impacts of acid rain mentioned in it.
Larry: Hello!

Charles Driscoll: Hello how is it going?

L: Good. You?

CD: Fine. We are headed to Toronto after our discussion.

L: Ah yes. Are you presenting anything?

CD: Yes. I am presenting on a new project we have on climate change and acid rain interactions.

L: So on acid rain. It's below the radar of the media these days. Any idea why?

CD: I think it is because the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the media and public have the perception that the problem is solved. Also other national and global environmental problems have emerged.

L: Yes. I saw that. There are several things that struck me: the lasting effects of acid rain on soils, for instance. Can you explain that a bit?

CD: Yes. In the 1980s when there was considerable active research, the problem was focused on lakes and streams. Scientists did not think that acid rain could possible affect soils. However since the mid-1990s we now know that acid rain is responsible for leaching large quantities of calcium and magnesium from soil. In areas where the soils are shallow and naturally poor this disturbance is causing health effects to sensitive trees. So far we know that red spruce and sugar maple have been affected. Also this process called soil acidification seems to limit the recover of acid impacted lakes and streams.

L: Ah. Yes. In your report, you mentioned climate change and acid rain. What are the connections?

CD: Acid rain has the most severe impacts in high elevation forests. These areas are also sensitive to changing climate. A warmer climate causes nitric acid to be leached from soil and acidify the soil and water. Our model calculations suggest that this effect may occur over the next 100 years or so.

L: And my last question: This is no longer a local problem, right? These pollutants don't respect national boundaries.

CD: Yes clearly. All the problems we have been discussing are both regional and global problems: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury and carbon dioxide. These materials can be transported 1000s of miles. Indeed they can be transported across the oceans and globally. All nations contribute to each other’s air pollution problems.

L: Same problems, same solutions too.

CD: You got it!

L: Looks like our time is up. I thank you for your willingness to this on such short notice. Have a good trip to Toronto.

CD: Thanks. It has been fun. Cheers, Charley Driscoll.

L: Cheers!

Unit 5

Water Pollution

“If there is magic on this planet, it is contained in water.”

~ Loran Eisely
“Water is H2O, hydrogen two parts, oxygen one,

but there is also a third thing, that makes water

and nobody knows what that is.”

~ D.H. Lawrence




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