Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для бакалавров и специалистов экологического факультета 2 этап обучения Краснодар 2011 г


Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below



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5. Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below:

detection, pesticides, bio-degradation, fertilizers, grazing animals, grassland, crops


  1. A huge amount of pesticides is used to fight parasite insects that can destroy part of all our ...

  2. Ground-waters pollution is particularly dangerous for the water we drink, coming from

natural sources of the areas where … are used.

  1. Intensive farming tends to deplete the soil of its mineral content using artificial … containing phosphorus and nitrogen.

  2. The … of heavy metals compounds in the soil is very difficult.

  3. Heavy metal deposits on grassland soils remain in the top few centimetres and are directly eaten with soil by ...

  4. There is such a wide variety of organic substances that their … and monitoring in the soil is practically impossible.

  5. One of the good agricultural practices is reducing the intensity of … use (by lowering cattle density).



Reading for Speaking and Discussing

Read the text and answer the question:




    • What alternatives to pesticides have scientists suggested?



Soil Pollution

Soil is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. The organic portion, which is derived from the decayed remains of plants and animals, is concentrated in the dark uppermost topsoil. The inorganic portion made up of rock fragments, was formed over thousands of years by physical and chemical weathering of bedrock. Productive soils are necessary for agriculture to supply the world with sufficient food.

A soil pollutant is any factor which deteriorates the quality, texture and mineral content of the soil or which disturbs the biological balance of the organisms in the soil. Pollution in soil has adverse effect on plant growth.

Pollution in soil is associated with:

-Indiscriminate use of fertilizers

-Indiscriminate use of pesticides, insecticides and herbicides

-Dumping of large quantities of solid waste

-Deforestation and soil erosion

-Acid rain

Soil nutrients are important for plant growth and development. Plants obtain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen from air and water. But other necessary nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sulfur and more must be obtained from the soil. Farmers generally use fertilizers to correct soil deficiencies. Fertilizers contaminate the soil with impurities, which come from the raw materials used for their manufacture. The over-use of fertilizers reduces quantity of vegetables and crops grown on soil over the years. It also reduces the protein content of wheat, maize, grams, etc., grown on that soil.

Plants on which we depend for food are under attack from insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and other animals, and must compete with weeds for nutrients. To kill unwanted populations living in or on their crops, farmers use pesticides. However, pesticides not only bring toxic effect on human and animals but also decrease the fertility of the soil. Some of the pesticides are quite stable and their biodegradation may take weeks and even months.

Pesticide problems such as resistance, resurgence, and heath effects have caused scientists to seek alternatives. Pheromones and hormones to attract or repel insects and using natural enemies or sterilization by radiation have been suggested.

In general, solid waste includes garbage, domestic refuse and solid materials such as paper, plastics, glass, old construction material, packaging material and toxic or otherwise hazardous substances. Since a significant amount of urban solid waste tends to be paper and food waste, the majority is recyclable or biodegradable in landfills. Similarly, most agricultural waste is recycled and mining waste is left on site.

The portion of solid waste that is hazardous such as oils, battery metals, heavy metals from smelting industries and organic solvents are the ones we have to pay particular attention to.

Soil erosion occurs when the weathered soil particles are carried away by wind or water. Deforestation, agricultural development, temperature extremes, precipitation including acid rain, and human activities contribute to this erosion. Humans speed up this process by construction, mining, cutting of timber, over cropping and overgrazing. It results in floods and cause soil erosion.

Forests and grasslands are an excellent binding material that keeps the soil intact and healthy. They support many habitats and ecosystems, which provide innumerable food chains to all species. Their loss would threaten food chains and the survival of many species. During the past few years quite a lot of vast green land has been converted into deserts. The precious rain forest habitats of South America, tropical Asia and Africa are coming under pressure of population growth and development (especially timber, construction and agriculture). Many scientists believe that a wealth of medicinal substances including a cure for cancer and aids, lie in these forests. Deforestation is slowly destroying the most productive flora and fauna areas in the world.


1.Grammar Revision. Find in the text and translate the complex sentences with:
Cause Subordinate Clause

Time Subordinate Clause

Object Subordinate Clause
2. Answer the questions.


  1. How would you define the term soil?

  2. What is the uppermost topsoil?

  3. What are productive soils necessary for?

  4. What is a soil pollutant?

  5. What are the main causes of soil pollution?

  6. What are the effects of soil pollution?


3. Ask your partner some more questions on the text.
4. Substitute the words in bold type for their synonyms:

get, upper layer, worsen, consisting, pollutants, substances, hazardous, turned, scarcity


  1. Soil is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface.

  2. The organic portion is concentrated in the dark uppermost topsoil.

  3. The inorganic portion made up of rock fragments, was formed over thousands of years.

  4. A soil pollutant is any factor which deteriorates the quality, texture and mineral content of the soil.

  5. Pollution in soil has adverse effect on plant growth.

  6. Plants obtain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen from air and water.

  7. Farmers generally use fertilizers to correct soil deficiencies.

  8. Fertilizers contaminate the soil with impurities, which come from the raw materials used for their manufacture.

  9. During the past few years quite a lot of vast green land has been converted into deserts.

5. Finish the sentences using the text.




  1. Soil is the thin layer of …

  2. The organic portion of the soil is concentrated in …

  3. The inorganic portion made up of rock fragments, was formed …

  4. Productive soils are necessary for …

  5. A soil pollutant is any factor which …

  6. Pollution in soil has …

  7. A soil pollutant is any factor which …

  8. Pollution in soil is associated with …

  9. Fertilizers contaminate the soil with …

  10. Pesticides not only …

  11. Soil erosion occurs when …

  12. The loss of forests and grasslands would threaten …

6. Translate.




  1. Почва – это тонкий слой органических и неорганических веществ, который покрывает каменистую поверхность Земли.

  2. Органическая часть, которая состоит из разложившихся остатков животных и растений, сосредоточена в самом верхнем слое почвы.

  3. Продуктивные почвы необходимы сельскому хозяйству, чтобы снабжать мир необходимым количеством продовольствия.

  4. Загрязнитель почвы – это любой фактор, который ухудшает качество, текстуру и минеральное содержание почвы.

  5. Загрязнение почвы оказывает отрицательное влияние на рост растений.

  6. Основными причинами загрязнения почвы являются следующие:

-неразборчивое применение удобрений

-необдуманное использование пестицидов, инсектицидов и гербицидов

-выброс огромного количества твёрдого мусора

-уничтожение лесов и эрозия почвы



  1. Основными последствиями загрязнения почвы являются:

-Удобрения загрязняют почву веществами, которые выделяются из сырья в процессе

производства.

-Пестициды не только оказывают токсичное воздействие на людей и животных, но

и ухудшают плодородие почвы.

-Эрозия почвы отрицательно сказывается на её качестве.

-Вырубка лесов способствует появлению эрозии почвы.

-Кислотный дождь увеличивает кислотность почвы и уменьшает её плодородие.
7. Summarize the text “Soil Pollution”. Use the following beginnings:

The text reports on…

The text touches upon…

A careful account is given to…

It is reported that…

Much attention is given to…

The text points out that…

The text deals with the problem of…

The text provides information on…

The text defines the phenomenon of…

The text covers such points as…

The effects of… on … are considered.


8. Work in pairs. Speak and express your opinion on the facts below. Use the following expressions:

I agree (don’t agree) that…

I think that …

It was interesting to find out that …




  1. Pollution in soil has adverse effect on plant growth.

  2. Deforestation is one of the major current challenges.




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