Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для бакалавров и специалистов экологического факультета 2 этап обучения Краснодар 2011 г



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Reading for Understanding

1. Read the text and choose the headline:




    1. Effects of Soil Pollution

    2. Soil

    3. The Sources of Soil Pollution

    4. What Can We Do to Help Soil?

Soil is the foundation of the worlds' ecosystems. As industry increases, pollution increases too.

What do you look at when you walk outside? The sky and the tops of trees? Birds and animals? Other people?

Next time you step out your door, look beneath your feet at the soil. Healthy soil is the foundation of thriving ecosystems; it supplies food, recycles nutrients, and supports growth. But soil can’t do anything unless it is clean, pure, and toxin free. Unfortunately, the world’s soil is becoming dirtier every day.

Soil can become contaminated in many ways. Chemicals, like herbicides and pesticides, are major polluters. Oil dumps, landfills, and industrial wastes can also add to the pollution. But how do these chemicals and oils get into open spaces far away from industrial sites and dumps?

Let’s take a plot of land in anywhere, USA, as an example. This land houses a small stand of trees, a nice meadow, and a small creek. Long before it reaches our plot, though, the creek runs beneath a hill by a factory. When it rains, water carries factory waste down the hill and into the creek, which carries it to our plot. In addition, there’s a farming operation a hundred miles away from our plot. The farmers use pesticides to protect their crops. However, some of the pesticides evaporate when temperatures rise; the next rainfall brings those chemicals to our plot as acid rain.

As you can see, pollutants can impact soil everywhere. And the effects are potentially disastrous: small chemical changes in soil can render an area inhospitable to plants eliminating the food chain’s foundation. Also, chemicals that runoff through soil into rivers and streams can contaminate drinking water. For farmers, pollutants can reduce crop yields and lead to heavy erosion.

Fortunately, the US and other countries have developed strong regulatory programs to minimize soil contamination. England, too, has a good set of soil guidance principles.

So what can you do? Most importantly, recycle. The less trash we put out, the less chance that trash will enter our soil. If you’re a gardener, use environmentally friendly insect control methods. And, if you can, buy organic food that wasn’t grown using harmful pesticides. It’s hard to worry about the soil’s health as new factories, highways, and buildings go up, but it deserves some serious consideration.
Notes:

plot –участок render -приводить в состояние

creek –ручей inhospitable –негостеприимный

meadow –луг yield –урожай
evaporate –испаряться trash -отбросы, мусор

deserve consideration -заслуживать внимания
2. Find in the text the equivalents to the following word combinations:
выходить на улицу; смотреть под ноги; процветающие экосистемы; промышленные районы; участок земли; фермерская деятельность; основа пищевой цепи; питьевая вода; ряд принципов, регулирующих использование земель; экологические методы контроля использования инсектицидов
3. Select the statement that best expresses the main idea of the text.


    1. Healthy soil is the foundation of thriving ecosystems; it supplies food, recycles nutrients, and supports growth.

    2. The farmers use pesticides to protect their crops.

    3. Soil can become contaminated in many ways.

    4. The less trash we put out, the less chance that trash will enter our soil.

4. Is it true or false? Correct the wrong statements.




  1. Soil is the foundation of the worlds' ecosystems.

  2. As industry increases, pollution decreases.

  3. The world’s soil is becoming cleaner every day.

  4. Industrial wastes are major pollutants f soil.

  5. The farmers use pesticides to contaminate soil.

  6. Pollutants can impact soil everywhere.

  7. Chemicals that runoff through soil into rivers and streams can contaminate drinking water.

  8. For farmers, pollutants can eliminate crop yields and lead to heavy erosion.

  9. It’s easy to worry about the soil’s health as new factories, highways, and buildings go up.

5. Retell the text.


6. Find on the Internet the information about soil contamination in Russia. Retell it.

Reading for Translating

How to Reduce Soil Pollution


Man has successfully lived through many civilizations, but with the change of each civilization he has moved further away from the earth and its conservation. Air, water or soil, nothing has been left untouched by the barbaric intervention of human beings. While the other two can be purified to an extent, soil is something which cannot be substituted with anything else or purified. Sadly, even after all the hue and cry environmentalists make, man is quick to forget that soil cannot be made again. Earth has become more like one giant garbage bin, filled with plastics, chemicals and all manners of non-biodegradable rubbish, polluting it to the core. Now that humans know that they can never be successful in making pure soil they are trying other ways for enhancing the fertility of soil through various processes.

Organic Fertilizers

There are other ways to add necessary nutrients to the soil other than chemical fertilizers. ‘Organic’ is the word of the day and what else will save the soil other than organic fertilizers. Not only are they harmless to nature but they also nourish the soil unlike chemical fertilizers. The latest to be added to the list is bio-fertilization. In this form of fertilization, certain microorganisms are used to increase the soil fertility along with nurturing it.

Organic Pesticides

Try to avoid pesticides as much as possible. Instead, try organic pesticides which help control pests without damaging the environment.

Recycling

Recycling is the best option for clearing away unwanted things like paper, plastic and other things that can reduce piling up, but be used as landfill. This is a serious matter of concern in urban areas where there is no proper place for waste disposal.

Planting Trees

For every tree that you cut another should be planted. Re-forestation is one way you can get rid of soil erosion and by which the lost fertility of the land can be regained to a certain limit.

Eliminating Weeds

Weeds absorb the necessary minerals out of the soil. Reducing weed growth can decrease soil pollution to a great extent.

Compost Pits

Making compost pits can help reduce waste getting accumulated in places. Treating them chemically and biologically into less hazardous and less toxic materials can prove really beneficial for clearing away a lot of solid waste.


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