Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для бакалавров и специалистов экологического факультета 2 этап обучения Краснодар 2011 г

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1. Read the conversation and answer the question:

- Why are plastic materials hazardous for soil?

Great Need to Avoid Soil Pollution

Dr. Bakul Rao and Mr. Srinivas, Environment Policy Research Institute, explain students the phenomenon of soil and suggest remedies.

Student: We now hear that even soil can get polluted. What is the scientific definition of soil?

Mr. Srinivas: The top portion of the earth is called soil. It is a product of disintegration of rocks.

Over several thousands years, the rocks get emaciated, then break and over a long

period time reduce to a powder state which can be called soil. It is as important as

water and air.

Student: What does it contain?

Dr. Bakul Rao: It contains sand, pieces of rocks and whatever nutrients the parent rock


Student: Now tell us, how does soil get polluted?

Mr. Srinivas: There are two types of soil pollution. One is the natural process – the degradation

of soil over millions of years. Seawater infiltration in coastal region, acidification of

soil, and soil erosion are the natural process of degradation of soil.

The second one is man-made pollution. Deforestation is a major factor of man-

made pollution of soil. Sewage can pollute the soil. Use of inorganic manure and

pesticides can pollute the soil.

Student: What happens to soil when we throw plastic materials?

Dr. Bakul Rao: Plastics are non-biodegradable objects that do not decompose and merge with

the soil. They prevent aeration of soil that kills useful bacteria. Some of them are

cancer-causing chemicals, which severely affect the soil.

Student: Thank you very much for the vital information.

Unit 7

Environmental Organizations
“He who knows what sweets and virtues are

in the ground, the waters, the plants, the heavens,

and how to come at these enchantments,

is the rich and royal man.”

~ Ralph Waldo Emerson
Warm up
An environmental organization is an organization that seeks to protect, analyze or monitor the environment against misuse or degradation or lobby for these goals.

In this sense the environment may refer to the biophysical environment, the natural environment or the built environment. The organization may be a charity, a non-governmental organization or a government organization. Environmental organizations can be global, national, regional or local.

Some of the environmental issues that are of interest to environmental organizations are pollution, waste, resource depletion and climate change.
- What environmental organizations do you know?
1. Read about some of the environmental organizations and say:

What are their goals?

Intergovernmental organizations

European Environment Agency (EEA)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)

Earth System Governance Project
There are also environmental intergovernmental organizations that group governments at the regional and local level, as distinguishable from the national level. Examples are the network of regional governments for sustainable development, the ICLEI-Local governments for sustainability and the Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA). These organizations use the method of open coordination to share policy best practice and provide assistance and counsel to partners on issues related to environmental development following the UN Millennium Agenda. These networks can be seen as international organizations and have observer status in the different UN environmental organizations.
Australia Canada

Bush Heritage Australia ECO Canada

Ireland New Zealand

Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland) Department of Conservation

England United States

English Heritage United States Environmental

Protection Agency

Private Organizations (Environmental NGOs)

These organizations are involved in lobbying, advocacy, or conservation efforts:
Friends of Nature (international abbreviation: NFI, for German: Naturfreunde International) is an international movement with a background in the Social Democratic movement, which aims to make nature accessible to the wider community by providing appropriate recreational and travel facilities. The organization began in Austria in 1895 as Naturfreunde. The movement spread and it now has 600,000 members, 3500 groups and runs some 1000 houses mainly in Europe. The International Friends of Nature (IFN), based in Vienna, is the umbrella organization of the national Friends of Nature federations. The work of the Friends of Nature rests on the conviction that people's opportunities of personal development are inextricably linked with the protection of nature and the conservation of natural resources. Hence, the Friends of Nature takes a stand for the conservation of an environment worth living in, for peace and international understanding, for the social and democratic rights of all people, and for a meaningful organization of leisure time.
Friends of the Earth International (FOEI) is an international network of environmental organizations in 77 countries.

Friends of the Earth International are the world's largest grassroots environmental network and they campaign on today's most urgent environmental and social issues. They challenge the current model of economic and corporate globalization, and promote solutions that will help to create environmentally sustainable and socially just societies. FOEI is assisted by a small secretariat (based in Amsterdam) which provides support for the network and its agreed major campaigns. The executive committee of elected representatives from national groups set policy and oversee the work of the secretariat. Friends of the Earth considers environmental issues in their social, political and human rights contexts. Their campaigns stretch beyond the traditional arena of the conservation movement and seek to address the economic and development aspects of sustainability.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. The stated goal of the organization is to help the world find pragmatic solutions to the most pressing environment and development challenges. The group publishes a "Red List" compiling information from a network of conservation organizations to rate which species are most endangered. The first Director General of UNESCO, (Sir Julian Huxley), wishing to give UNESCO a more scientific base, sponsored a congress to establish a new environmental institution to help serve this purpose.

At that first congress (held at Fontainebleau, France), on 5 October 1948, 18 governments, 7 international organizations, and 107 national nature conservation organizations all agreed to form the institution and signed a "constitutive act" creating an International Union for the Protection of Nature.

From this beginning, the overriding strategy and policy of the institution has been to explore and promote mutually beneficial conservation arrangements that suit those promoting development as well as assisting people and nations to better preserve their flora and fauna.
The International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) is a professional association that works for the conservation and protection of cultural heritage places around the world. ICOMOS was founded in 1965 as a result of the Venice Charter of 1964 and offers advice to UNESCO on World Heritage Sites. ICOMOS currently has over 7500 members. With rare exceptions, each member must be qualified in the field of conservation, and a practicing landscape architect, architect, archaeologist, town planner, engineer, administrator of heritage, art historian or archivist. Its international headquarters are in Paris.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 40 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Greenpeace states its goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity". Greenpeace uses direct action, lobbying and research to achieve its goals. The global organization does not accept funding from governments, corporations or political parties, relying on more than 2.8 million individual supporters and foundation grants.

Greenpeace evolved from the peace movement and anti-nuclear protests in Vancouver, British Columbia in the early 1970s. On September 15, 1971, the newly founded Don't Make a Wave Committee sent a chartered ship, Phyllis Cormack, renamed Greenpeace for the protest, from Vancouver to oppose United States testing of nuclear devices in Amchitka, Alaska. The Don't Make a Wave Committee subsequently adopted the name Greenpeace.

Today Greenpeace focuses on world wide issues such as global warming, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling and nuclear power. Greenpeace is known for its direct actions[ and has been described as the most visible environmental organization in the world. Campaigns of Greenpeace have raised environmental issues to public knowledge and influenced both the private and the public sector but Greenpeace has also been a source of controversy. Its motives and methods have received criticism and the organization's direct actions have sparked legal actions against Greenpeace activists.

Greenpeace consists of Greenpeace International (officially Stichting Greenpeace Council) based in Amsterdam, Netherlands, and 28 regional offices operating in 45 countries.

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization working on issues regarding the conservation, research and restoration of the environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. It is the world's largest independent conservation organization with over 5 million supporters worldwide, working in more than 90 countries, supporting around 1300 conservation and environmental projects around the world. It is a charity, with approximately 60% of its funding coming from voluntary donations by private individuals. 45% of the fund's income comes from the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands.

The group says its mission is "to halt and reverse the destruction of our environment". Currently, much of its work focuses on the conservation of three biomes that contain most of the world's biodiversity: forests, freshwater ecosystems, and oceans and coasts. Among other issues, it is also concerned with endangered species, pollution and climate change.

Green Russia (Зеленая Россия) is a coalition of 18 green political organizations in Russia. However, it is not the most prominent green party.


Green Russia was formed in 1995 as an alliance of the Russian Green Party, the Public Ecological Foundations Union, the All-Russian Environment Protection Society, the Ecological Academy, the Ecological Assembly of Women and the Federation of Independent Trade Unions, and many others.
The Green Party of Russia has more than a 10 year long history.

First it emerged as “Kedr” constructive ecological movement of Russia in 1992 when a group of scientists and ecologists decided to combine their efforts to protect environment and human beings from negative aspects of civilization. Soon the movement got wide support from the population in many regions of Russia and became a national political stream.

Today the Green Party of Russia has its branches in 58 regions of the country and numbers more than 12 thousand members.

Major aims and goals of the party are clear to any Russian citizen:

-to lay the legislative basis for environmental protection in Russia;

-to provide decent conditions of living for all Russian peoples, to establish advanced health system and social security;

-to ensure ecological studies and education;

-to start implementing recently adopted Ecological Doctrine of Russia in all its aspects;

-to protect animals, birds, rare species from extinction;

-to introduce energy saving and other high technologies in industry and agriculture;

-to organize proper cooperation between state institutions and public organizations in ecological projects, public health and security.
Greenpeace Russia
Greenpeace is an independent campaigning organization that uses non-violent, creative confrontation to expose global environmental problems and to force solutions, which are essential to a green and peaceful future.

In Russia Greenpeace campaigns:

* to save the last remaining sports of intact nature;

* to confront nuclear danger;

* to eliminate threats of chemical and genetic contamination;

* to save forests and Lake Baikal.


In July 1989 the Deputy Chairman of the USSR Supreme Soviet Environmental Committee, Alexy Yablokov, formally announced the establishment of Greenpeace USSR as the first independent organization in the Soviet Union.

By October 1989 a staff of 10 people - three Westerners and seven Soviets - were established in a Moscow office.

Greenpeace took the view that its priorities should be to provide information for public and government officials and to offer positive solutions to specific environmental problems in the region. The organization would thus act as a catalyst for change within the general framework of perestroyka.

There were many problems to overcome before Greenpeace could begin to operate effectively. In March 1990 a legal entity with its own byelaws and rights was approved by the Moscow City Council, but the organization's work was halted, due to lack of office space. The Moscow office was set the task of consolidating Greenpeace structure in the USSR by developing a network of reliable and appropriate local NGO groups to provide information and support. The first international Greenpeace meeting in Russia took place in July 1990, at a summer camp held at Pereslavl-Zalessky, 120 kilometres (75 miles) north of Moscow. The 54 children present chose one issue with global consequences - factory emissions - as the basis for a local action in the future. Entitled the "International Strategy and Action Plan", this blueprint was published and distributed around the world. The children also produced a newsletter describing their experiences at the camp called "The Whole World in our Hands".

On September 26 1990, the MV Greenpeace set sail from Tromso in Norway for the two Soviet islands of Novaya Zemlya, in the Barents Sea to oppose the resumption of nuclear testing there.

In 1992 the organization was officially registered as ‘Greenpeace Russia’.

In 2001 a branch of Greenpeace Russia was opened in Saint Petersburg.

Greenpeace Russia has 15 thousand supporters.
2. Find on the Internet some more information about ecological organizations. Retell it.
Band of gorillas Kindle/kendle of kittens

Bed of clams, oysters Knot of toads

Brace of sucks Leap of leopards

Brood of chicks Leash of greyhounds

Cast of hawks Litter of pigs

Cete of badgers Mob of kangaroos

Charm of goldfinches Murder of crowds

Chattering of choughs Muster of peacocks

Cloud of gnats Mute of hounds

Clowder of cats Nest of vipers

Clutch of chicks Nest, nide of pheasants

Clutter of cats Pack of hounds, wolves

Colony of ants Pair of horses

Congregation of plovers Pod of whales, seals

Covey of quail, partridge Pride of lions

Crash of rhinoceri School of fish

Cry of hounds Sedge/siege of cranes

Down of hares Shoal of fish, pilchards

Drift of swine Skeing of gees

Drove of cattle, sheep Skulk of foxes

Exaltation of larks Sleuth of bears

Flight of birds Sounder of boars, swine

Flock of sheep, geese Span of mules

Gaggle of geese Spring of teals

Gam of whales Swarm of bees

Gang of elks Team of ducks, horses

Grist of bees Tribe/trip of goats

Grist of monkeys Troop of kangaroos

Herd of elephants Volery of birds

Horde of gnats Watch of nightingales

Husk of hares Wing of plovers

Yoke of oxen

Bunny: rabbit

Calf: cattle, elephant, antelope, rhino, hippo, whale, etc.

Cheeper: grouse, partridge, quail

Chick, chicken: fowl

Cockerel: rooster

Codling, sprag: codfish

Colt: horse (male)

Cub: lion, bear, shark, fox, etc.

Cygnet: swan

Duckling: duck

Eaglet: eagle

Elver: eel

Eyas: hawks, etc.

Fawn: deer

Filly: horse (female)

Fingerling: fish generally

Flapper: wild fowl

Fledgling: birds generally

Foal: horse, zebra, etc.

Fry: fish generally

Gosling: goose

Heifer: cow

Joey: kangaroo, etc.

Kid: goat

Kit: fox, beaver, rabbit, cat

Kitten, kitty, catling: cats, other fur-beavers

Lamb, lambkin, cosset, hog: sheep

Leveret: hare

Nestling: birds generally

Owlet: owl

Parr, smolt, grilse: salmon

Piglet, shoat, farrow, suckling: pig

Polliwog, tadpole: frog

Poult: turkey

Pullet: hen

Pup: dog, seal, sea lion, fox

Puss, pussy: cat

Spike, blinker, tinker: mackerel

Squab: pigeon

Squeaker: pigeon, etc.

Whelp: dog, tiger, beasts of prey

Yearling: cattle, sheep, horse, etc.

Animal Liberation Front (ALF) British radical movement which uses terrorism against the fur industry, animal physiology labs at universities and hospitals, and against butcher shops.

Animal Rights Activists Radical movement that urges a ban on all trappings.

Animal Welfare Organizations Any organization concerned about humane treatment of animals; are willing to work with governments to conduct animal control programs.

Bide-a-Wee Home Association for Animals, New York A no-kill pet shelter that actively seeks to place its wards to new homes.

Carbon Energy Fund, the. A non-profit organization established by UES to handle Kyoto implementation.

Caring for the Earth – a Strategy for Sustainable Living Document from 1991 prepared by IUCN, UNEP and WWF. An update of the WCS from 1980. The 1991 document states that the three objectives of the WCS have become clearer, and the need to act has become more pressing. (Забота о Земле – Стратегия устойчивого существования).

CFC chlorofluorocarbon One of a range of chemically inert compounds in which chlorinated hydrocarbon is treated with hydrogen fluoride; it has negative effect on the ozone layer.

European Environmental Bureau (EEB) Umbrella organization for more than 60 environmental organizations within the EU. In summer of 1993 the EEB announced the withdrawal of its environmental honorary prize to Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway, because of Norway’s whaling policy.

Elks, Protective Order of. Benevolent society founded by 15 actors and entertainers in New York in 1868. emphasis on social activities in pleasant club facilities combined with patriotic and benevolent activities provides college scholarships, grants to charity (home therapy for children with cerebral palsy, hospitals for handicapped, summer camps. Headquarted in Chicago.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Established in 1970. Federal agency under the executive branch. It was created to reduce and control pollution by a variety of research monitoring, and enforcement activities. It coordinates and supports research and anti-pollution activities by state and local governments, private and public groups, individuals and educational institutions.

Endangered Species Act, the (ESA) Was passed in 1973. The U.S. was awakening to the mounting environmental threats, such as rapid population growth, excessive development, and unsustainable exploitation of natural resources.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Fish and Wildlife Service A federal US agency responsible for preservation and maintenance of non-domestic animals.

Forest Service A federal US agency responsible for the maintenance and preservation of the country’s public lands and national forests.

Friends of the Earth (FoE) Established in 1971. An environmentalist organization whose aims are similar to those of the more famous Greenpeace. It is one of the British pressure groups with international reputation. Its activists include consultancy work abroad, the mobilization of grass-roots activities and campaigns by volunteers, the provision of information to the general public, other experts, and the Government, and political lobbing. It operates in 44 countries worldwide. 38 international group-members, 250 local groups in the UK. It is headquartered in Amsterdam.

GFDL, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL – NOAA’s)

Green consumerism A product is advertised as ecologically clean thus attracting more customers. Not all meet the requirements of ecologically clean technologies.

Green marketing Producing and selling products that appeal to the environmental conscience, recyclables, discount on return the bag.

Green movement Social movement all over the Western world whose prime concern is with ecological issues (preservation of wildlife, concern over pollution, etc.)

Greenpeace An international organization, whose members work actively to protect the environment from damage caused by industrial processes or military activities. It is known especially for its own boats to try to prevent governments from testing nuclear weapons, to prevent companies from pouring poisonous chemicals into the sea, and to try to save whales and other sea animals from being killed. However, some of the methods they use are controversial.

Hartsdale Canine Cemetery (The) The oldest pet cemetery in the USA. “We find that most of the people who come here are average. The thought of throwing their pet in the garbage can is not acceptable to them” (Edward Martin, co-director of Hartsdale Canine Cemetery).

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling Adopted in 1946, in force 1948.

International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) Founded in 1969, an animal rights organization with more than 500,000 members. The goal is to stop any, also indigenous People’s usage, of wild living animals.

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, the (ICES) Founded 1902, the highest goals are to be consistent with the maintenance of fish stocks.

IUCN Red Data Book The authoritative international register of threatened species. It has developed a system where threatened species are categorized as Extinct, Endangered, Vulnerable, Rare, Indeterminate, Insufficiently Known, Out of danger.

IUCN World Conservation Union Fomerly International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, founded in 1948, it comprises governments, research institutes and conservation agencies in over 120 countries. The objective is to promote and encourage the protection and sustainable utilization of living resources.

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