Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для бакалавров и специалистов экологического факультета 2 этап обучения Краснодар 2011 г


Reading for Speaking and Discussing



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Reading for Speaking and Discussing



Read the text and say why animals are so important to people.

People and Animals

Originally Aristotle divided all living things between plants, which generally do not move, and animals which can move. In Linnaeus' system, these became the kingdoms Vegetabilia (later Plantae) and Animalia.

The word “animal” comes from the Latin word “animalis” meaning “with soul” (from “anima” – “soul”).

Animals as a category have several characteristics that generally set them apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and usually multicellular, which separates them from bacteria, for example. They are heterotrophic (meaning that they feed directly or indirectly on other living things), generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae. They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls.

Since the earliest times people have hunted wild animals for their meat, skins and fur. Then in about 10,000 BC, the first farmers began to tame and breed wild animals to feed the growing population. This process called domestication, played a vital role in the development of human civilization. Since then, people have continued to rear animals for food and clothing, as well as train them to work, and breed them as pets. Some domesticated animals, including many breeds of dogs, have been specially bread for so long that they look very different from their wild ancestors.

Many animals are trained to work for people because of their skills. Elephants and llamas, for example, are used to carry heavy loads over long distances, while oxen and horses can be used where a farmer has no tractor. Dogs are particularly intelligent animals and can be taught to guide blind people, control herds of sheep, sniff out drugs or explosives, and help police to track down criminals.

Although many people consider it cruel, rabbits, mice, rats, and other animals are kept in laboratories and used to test new medicines, to help find cures for certain diseases such as cancer, and to increase human understanding of animal behaviour. Some studies involve altering the genetic makeup of animals or producing clones – animals that are genetically identical.

Zoos allow people to see animals from all over the world and to learn about their behaviour. In good modern zoo or wildlife park, the emphasis is placed on educating the public about wild animals and helping to conserve them.

Many adults and children keep animals as pets. The most popular pets are cats, dogs, fish, and budgerigars, although some people have unusual pets, such as spiders. Pets provide their owners with companionship and affection in return for food and shelter. Many schools and kindergartens keep animals as pets so that children can learn how they eat, sleep, and take care of their young. Studies have shown that people with pets suffer less from stress.

Animals live everywhere on earth - in every kind of terrain and every kind of climate. An animal's living place is called its habitat. Most animals are only adapted to live in one or two habitats. A barakuda which is a salt water fish could not live in a fresh water lake. A walrus could not live in a desert. A rattlesnake could not live for very long in the arctic. Some animals migrate in the spring and again in the fall to find warmer habitats with an abundance of food.


1. Grammar Revision. Find in the text and translate the sentences in which the predicate is:

    1. in Past Simple Active

    2. in Present Perfect Active

    3. in Present Perfect Passive


2. Answer the questions.


  1. How did Aristotle divide all living things?

  2. What differs animals from other living things?

  3. What have people hunted wild animals for?

  4. When did the first farmers begin to tame and breed wild animals?

  5. What is domestication?

  6. What are elephants/llamas/oxen/horses/dogs used for?

  7. How do people use animals for medical researches?

  8. What do you think about different experiments with animals in laboratories? Do you consider it cruel or necessary for our life?

  9. Where could you see animals from all over the world? Do you like to go to the Zoo? Why?

  10. Why do you think people keep pets?

  11. Do you have a pet at home? What does your pet provide you with?

  12. What is a habitat?

  13. Why do some animals migrate?


3. Ask your partner some more questions on the text.
4. Substitute the words in bold type for their synonyms:

accent, structure, to domesticate, classified, essential, gunned for, richness, set apart, unseeing, grown-ups, love, medicines




  1. Originally Aristotle divided all living things between plants and animals.

  2. Animals are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls.

  3. Since the earliest times, people have hunted wild animals for their meat, skins and fur.

  4. The first farmers began to tame wild animals to feed the growing population.

  5. The process of domestication played a vital role in the development of human civilization.

  6. Dogs can be taught to guide blind people.

  7. Some animals are kept in laboratories to help find cures for certain diseases.

  8. Some studies involve altering the genetic makeup of animals or producing clones.

  9. In good modern zoos, the emphasis is placed on educating the public about wild animals.

  10. Many adults and children keep animals as pets.

  11. Pets provide their owners with companionship and affection.

  12. Some animals migrate to find warmer habitats with an abundance of food.

5. Finish the sentences using the text.




  1. Originally Aristotle divided all living things …

  2. In Linnaeus' system, these became the kingdoms …

  3. Animals as a category have several characteristics that …

  4. They digest food in an internal chamber, which …

  5. They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi …

  6. Since the earliest times, people have hunted wild animals for…

  7. Then in about 10,000 BC, the first farmers began…

  8. This process called domestication, …

  9. Some domesticated animals, including many breeds of dogs, have been…

  10. Many animals are trained to work…

  11. Dogs are particularly intelligent animals and…

  12. Although many people consider it cruel, …

  13. Zoos allow people to see animals…

  14. Many adults and children keep…

  1. Pets provide their owners with…

  2. An animal's living place is called …

  3. Most animals are only adapted to live in …

  4. Some animals migrate in the spring and again in the fall …

6. Translate.




  1. Животные имеют несколько характерных черт, которые отделяют их от других живых существ.

  2. Животные – гетеротрофные существа, т.е. прямо или косвенно питаются другими живыми существами.

  3. Они отличаются от растений, грибов и водорослей тем, что не имеют клеточных стенок.

  4. Издавна люди охотились на диких животных ради их мяса, шкур и шерсти.

  5. Процесс одомашнивания животных играл жизненно важную роль в развитии человеческой цивилизации.

  6. Собаки - очень умные животные, и поэтому их можно научить сопровождать слепых, пасти стада овец, отыскивать наркотики и взрывчатые вещества и помогать полиции выслеживать преступников.

  7. В зоопарках можно увидеть животных со всех концов света, а также изучать их повадки.

  8. Некоторых животных содержат в лабораториях, и на них апробируются новые лекарственные препараты.

  9. Исследования показали, что люди, имеющие домашних животных, меньше страдают от стрессов.

  10. Место, где живёт животное, называется его средой обитания.

  11. Некоторые животные мигрируют весной и осенью в поисках обильной пищи.


7. Summarize the text “People and Animals”. Use the following beginnings:

The text reports on…

The text touches upon…

A careful account is given to…

It is reported that…

Much attention is given to…

The text points out that…

The text deals with the problem of…

The text provides information on…

The text defines the phenomenon of…

The text covers such points as…
8.Work in pairs. Speak and express your opinion on the facts below. Use the following expressions:


    • I think (suppose) …

    • In my opinion…

    • In my view…

    • I agree (don’t agree) that…

a) The process of domestication played a vital role in the development of human civilization.

b) Many animals are trained to work for people because of their skills.

c) Some animals are kept in laboratories and used to test new medicines.

d) Zoos play important role in educating people about wild animals.

e) Many adults and children keep animals as pets.

f) Studies have shown that people with pets suffer less from stress.


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