Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для бакалавров и специалистов экологического факультета 2 этап обучения Краснодар 2011 г


Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below



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5. Place the appropriate word from the list in each of the blanks below:

poisonous gases, corresponding demand, harmful, global warming, currently, long-term, glaciers, released


  1. The … for resources has had a dramatic impact on the natural world.

  2. … affects the whole planet.

  3. Over millions of years, many species have adapted to natural changes, such as … variation in climate.

  4. It is difficult for living things to adapt to the harmful materials … into the environment.

  5. World temperatures are … rising every year.

  6. As the planet warms up, the water locked up in … will start to melt.

  7. Acid rains fall when … from power stations mix with oxygen and moisture in the air.

  8. A natural layer of ozone gas high in the atmosphere provides protection against the Sun’s … rays.



Reading for Speaking and Discussing



Read the text and say what environmental problems are mentioned in it.

People and Nature

The rapid rise in the human population and the corresponding demand for resources have had a dramatic impact on the natural world. While global warming, acid rain, and holes in the ozone layer affect the whole planet, other changes, such as habitat destruction and hunting, threaten individual species. Over millions of years, many species have adapted to natural changes, such as long-term variation in climate. However, it is more difficult for living things to adapt to the harmful materials released into the environment as a result of human activities.

World temperatures are currently rising every year. This so called global warming is caused by the buildup of gases and water vapour in the atmosphere. These gases form a layer that reflects the heat back to Earth, rather than allowing it to escape into the outer atmosphere. As the planet warms up, the water in the oceans will take up more space and water locked up in glaciers and the polar ice caps will start to melt. This could cause sea levels to rise and many habitats will disappear under water.

Acid rains fall when poisonous gases from power stations and vehicle exhausts mix with oxygen and moisture in the air. These gases become part of the water cycle and may be carried a long way by the wind before they fall as acid rain, or snow. Acid rain poisons or kills wildlife in lakes, rivers, and forests and damages the surrounding plant life. The problem could be controlled by reducing vehicle emissions and limiting the gases released from power stations.

A natural layer of ozone gas high in the atmosphere provides protection against the Sun’s harmful rays. However, certain pollutant gases, including CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are now destroying the ozone. Since 1979, “holes” have appeared in the ozone layer – first over the Antarctic, then over the Arctic. Damaging ultraviolet rays from the Sun penetrate these “holes”, slowing the growth of plants.

The development of technology by the human race has allowed the greater exploitation of natural resources and has helped to escape some of the risk from natural hazards. In spite of this progress, however, the fate of human civilization remains closely linked to changes in the environment. Man-made threats to the Earth's natural environment include pollution, deforestation, and disasters such as oil spills. Humans have contributed to the extinction of many plants and animals.

Humans employ nature for both leisure and economic activities. The exploitation of natural resources for industrial use remains the primary component of the world's economic system. Although early humans gathered uncultivated plant materials for food and employed the medicinal properties of vegetation for healing, most modern human use of plants is through agriculture. The clearance of large areas of land for crop growth has led to a significant loss of habitat for many plant and animal species as well as increased erosion.
1. Grammar Revision. Find in the text and translate the sentences where the predicate is:


    1. in Present Progressive Active

    2. in Future Simple Active


2. Answer the questions.


  1. What are the consequences of human activity?

  2. What is global warming? What is it caused by?

  3. What causes sea level to rise? What are the consequences of this phenomenon?

  4. What damage do acid rains bring? How could the problem be controlled?

  5. What does a natural layer of ozone gas provide?

  6. Where did “ozone holes” appear?

  7. What allowed the greater exploitation of natural resources?

  8. What are man-made threats to the Earth's natural environment?


3. Ask your partner some more questions on the text.
4. Substitute the words in bold type for their synonyms:

crushing, brake free, adjusted, quick, damaging, accumulation, safeguard, shortening
1) The rapid rise in the human population has had a dramatic impact on the natural world.

  1. Habitat destruction and hunting threaten individual species.

  2. Over millions of years, many species have adapted to natural changes.

  3. It is more difficult for living things to adapt to the harmful materials released into the environment.

  4. Global warming is caused by the buildup of gases and water vapour in the atmosphere.

  5. These gases form a layer that reflects the heat back to Earth and does not allow it to escape into the outer atmosphere.

  6. The problem could be controlled by reducing vehicle emissions.

  7. A natural layer of ozone gas high in the atmosphere provides protection against the Sun’s harmful rays.

5. Finish the sentences using the text.




  1. The rapid rise in the human population and the demand for resources…

  2. Global warming, acid rains, and holes in the ozone layer affect…

  3. Habitat destruction and hunting…

  4. It is difficult for living things to adapt…

  5. World temperatures…

  6. Global warming is caused by…

  7. These gases form a layer that…

  8. This could cause…

  9. Acid rains fall when…

  10. Acid rain kills…

  11. The problem could be controlled by…

  12. A natural layer of ozone gas provides…

  13. However, certain pollutant gases…

  14. Since 1979, “holes”…

  15. Damaging ultraviolet rays from the Sun…

6. Translate.




  1. Быстрый рост населения Земли и спрос на ресурсы оказывают сильное воздействие на природу.

  2. За миллионы лет многие живые существа приспособились к естественным изменениям климата.

  3. Однако живым существам гораздо труднее приспособиться к выбросам в окружающую среду вредных веществ, производимых человеком.

  4. Температура земли с каждым годом постепенно повышается.

  5. Так называемое глобальное потепление вызывается скоплением газов и водных паров в атмосфере.

  6. По мере того, как планета будет нагреваться, уровень воды в океанах будет повышаться, и вода, заключённая в ледниках и полярных снегах, начнёт таять.

  7. Отравляющие газы становятся частью природного круговорота воды, они могут довольно далеко переноситься ветрами и затем выпадают на землю в виде кислотного дождя или снега.

  8. С 1979 года в озоновом слое Земли существуют «дыры», которые появились сначала над Антарктидой, а затем над Арктикой.

  9. Эксплуатация природных ресурсов для промышленных целей остаётся основным компонентом мировой экономической системы.

  10. Деятельность людей привела к исчезновению многих растений и животных.


7. Summarize the text “People and Nature”. Use the following beginnings:

The text reports on…

The text touches upon…

A careful account is given to…

It is reported that…

Much attention is given to…

The text points out that…

The text deals with the problem of…

The text provides information on…

The text defines the phenomenon of…

The text covers such points as…
8. Work in pairs. Speak on the facts below using the expressions:


    • I agree (don’t agree) that…

    • In my opinion…

    • I am sure that…

    • I think that…

a) The consequences of human activity are dramatic.

b) Global warming is one of the pressing problems nowadays.

c) The problem of acid rains could not be controlled.

d) Certain pollutant gases are now destroying the ozone layer.

e) The development of technology by the human race has helped to escape some of the risk

of natural hazards.


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