Учебное пособие для химических специальностей итф: Учебн пособ./ англ яз. Н. С. Иванова, Р. С. Карпеева. Самара


Participle I, Participle II (special cases), Perfect Participle



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Participle I, Participle II (special cases), Perfect Participle
Ex. 1. Read the sentences, find the predicate and the subject, define the tense and the voice of the predicate. Find Participle I and Participle II and Perfect Participle. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.


    1. Having been well insulated the wire may be used as a conductor.

    2. Having given an indication of the methods used in this type of analysis, we must now mention some of the earlier results.

    3. Given the weight and the specific gravity of a body, you can calculate its volume.

    4. Seen in the context, the ranges of applicability and reliability of the method may be assessed.

    5. Recrystallization followed by extraction gave good results.

    6. Being incompatible with each other, oxidizers and reducers should be stored in separate cabinets or on separate shelves.

    7. The magnitude of the problem usually increases with the quantity of chemicals being stored.

    8. The incompatible chemicals involved should be stored in separate locations to minimize the risk of accidental mixing.

    9. A wide range of substances being kept in the chemical laboratory present a risk due to either chronic or acute toxicity.

    10. Stated above toxic substances may enter the body by inhalation, absorption, ingestion, and/or injection.

    11. When using the poisons, no food or drinks are to be consumed in laboratories under any circumstances.

    12. Containers/utensils having been used for the preparation or consumption of food or beverages must not be stored in the open in laboratories.

    13. All chemical waste containing arsenic, lead or mercury must be collected and properly labeled for disposal.

    14. Having broken the thermometer, you should immediately clean mercury spills from it.

    15. Used silica should be stored in sealed and labeled containers.

Ex.2a) Read the following reference information.

incompatible-несовместимые

utensils-приборы, инструменты

thereof-из этого


Ex.2b). Find the following active words in the text, choose the right Russian equivalents from the dictionary . Learn these active words .

explosion

magnitude

separate

include


enter

inhalation

ingestion

injection

protective

measure


prevent

poison


consume

utensils


volatile

arsenic


lead

spill


silica

Ex.3. Read the text.



Incompatible Chemicals

Being incompatible with each other, oxidizers (e.g. chromates, halogens, peroxides) and reducers (e.g. metals, metal hydrides, phosphorous, sulfur) should be stored in separate cabinets or on separate shelves. Accidental contact of incompatible chemicals can lead to fire, explosion and/or the release of highly toxic substances. The magnitude of the problem usually increases with the quantity of chemicals being stored. Prudent practice requires that incompatible chemicals involved should be stored in separate locations to minimize the risk of accidental mixing. Strong oxidizers should also be separated from flammable liquids



Toxicity

A wide range of substances being kept in the chemical laboratory present a risk due to either chronic or acute toxicity; this includes the presence of carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens. Stated above toxic substances may enter the body by inhalation, absorption, ingestion and/or injection, appropriate protective measures must be taken to prevent exposure and where available, antidotes for poisons must be present. When using the poisons no food or drinks are to be consumed in laboratories under any circumstances. Containers/utensils having been used for the preparation or consumption of food or beverages must not be stored in the open in laboratories. Any woman who works in a laboratory where hazardous substances are in use and who is, or believes that she may be, pregnant must inform her supervisor.



Designated Substances

A biological, chemical or physical agent, or combination thereof must be “designated” and its use in the workplace may be either prohibited or strictly regulated. Regular reporting on inventories of these substances may be required.



Acrylonitrile, benzene, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, isocyanates, styrene, and vinyl chloride monomer are all volatile organic materials, and must be used with adequate ventilation (fumehood) to prevent exposure through inhalation and with appropriate protective equipment to prevent exposure through skin absorption. These materials can be disposed of in the normal liquid organic waste stream (halogenated or nonhalogenated as appropriate).

Substances containing arsenic, lead or mercury must be handled in an appropriate manner to prevent exposure through inhalation or absorption. All chemical waste containing arsenic, lead or mercury must be collected and properly labeled for disposal.



Elemental mercury is used in many types of apparatus, in particular mercury-filled thermometers. Having broken the equipment, one should immediately clean mercury spills from it. Broken thermometers are collected by lab technicians, who will recover the mercury from the thermometers before disposal.

Silica powder is a respiratory hazard and should be handled in a fumehood when dry. Used silica should be stored in sealed and labeled containers, then sent for disposal by the Department of Environmental Health and Safety.

Ex.4. Answer the following questions.




  1. What can accidental contact of incompatible chemicals lead to?

  1. explosion

  2. increase of quantity

  3. mixing

  4. absorption




  1. What does the magnitude of the problem concerning incompatible chemicals increase with?

  1. the quantity of chemicals being stored

  2. the quality of chemicals being stored

  3. the risk of accidental mixing

  4. some general groups of incompatible chemicals




  1. What does the prudent practice connected with incompatible chemicals require?

  1. incompatible chemicals should be stored in separate locations

  2. incompatible chemicals should be mixed

  3. incompatible chemicals should be stored on the shelf with flammable liquids

  4. incompatible chemicals should be kept in one cabinet




  1. How may toxic substances enter the body?

  1. by inhalation, absorption, ingestion, and injection

  2. with water

  3. with food

  4. with air




  1. What must pregnant women do working in a lab where hazardous substances are in use?

  1. inform their supervisor

  2. stop working in a lab

  3. use special clothes

  4. use antidotes for poisons

Ex.5.Find a mistake and correct it. Consult the text.



  1. Elemental mercury used in many types of apparatus in particular mercury-filled thermometers.

  1. elemental mercury

  2. used in

  3. many types of apparatus

  4. in particular

  5. mercury-filled thermometers




  1. Breaking thermometers is collected by lab technicians, who will recover the mercury from the thermometers before disposal.

  1. breaking thermometers

  2. is collected

  3. by lab technicians

  4. who will recover

  5. the mercury from the thermometers before disposal




  1. Silica powder is a respiratory hazard and should be handle in a fumehood when dry.

  1. silica powder

  2. is a respiratory hazard

  3. should be handle

  4. in a fumehood

  5. when dry



  1. Oxidizers and reducers are incompatible with each other, and should be stored of separate cabinets or on separate selves.

  1. oxidizers and reducers

  2. are incompatible with each other

  3. should be stored

  4. of separate cabinets

  5. on separate shelves




  1. Strong oxidizers should separated from flammable liquids.

  1. strong oxidizers

  2. should separated

  3. from flammable liquids

Ex.6. Give the English equivalents to these Russian chemical terms.



1) окислитель, 2) восстановитель, 3) канцероген, 4) мутаген, 5) тератоген, 6) акрилонитрил/цианистый винил, 7) бензол, 8) сероуглерод/сернистый углерод, 9) эфир изоциановой кислоты/изоциановый эфир, 10) стирол, 11) хлористый винил
Ex.7. What chemical elements are mentioned in the text?
Ex.8. You are a Laboratory Safety Officer. Your students are to work with incompatible substances. Give them instructions how to use and store these chemicals. The following phrases might help you.

      1. … should be stored in separate cabinets or on separate shelves

      2. ..... should be separated from flammable liquids

      3. … mustn’t be stored in the open in the lab

      4. … must inform the supervisor

      5. … may be required

      6. …. must be used with adequate ventilation

      7. … can be disposed of in the normal liquid organic waste stream

      8. … must be handled in an appropriate manner to prevent exposure through inhalation or absorption

      9. … must be collected and properly labeled for disposal

      10. ….must be stored in sealed and labeled containers

      11. ….should be handled in a fumehood when dry



Unit 6.

The Absolute Participle Construction
Ex. 1. Read the sentences, find the predicate and the subject, define the tense and the voice of the predicate. Find the Absolute Participle Constructions. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.


  1. This is a device used for detection and measurement of light, its principle of action being simple.

  2. The device consists of two electrodes, one of them being coated with photoemissive material.

  3. The electric current passing through the device, we can measure light intensity.

  4. There being no atmosphere, the lunar surface is exposed to direct sunlight.

  5. The electricity is carried exclusively by the electrons, the atomic nuclei remaining stationary.

  6. The necessary data having been obtained, we could proceed with our experiment.

  7. All the necessary preparations having been done, the operator began to assemble the engine.

  8. The article deals with optical electronics, particular attention being paid to lasers.

  9. An object losing its potential energy, that energy is turned into kinetic energy.

  10. Stock bottles being made of a soft glass which breaks readily, never heat or apply pressure/vacuum to a chemical in a stock bottle.

  11. Equipment having been tested, every frayed cord or broken plug should be repaired.

  12. The lamp may overheat and crack, with mercury vapour being released as a consequence.

  13. Keep a high general illumination level in areas where lasers are in operation, low levels of light causing dilation of the pupils.

  14. The main cylinder valve having been closed, the cylinder delivery pressure shall be set to zero.

  15. Empty cylinders shall have the regulators removed, the shipping cap replaced and returned to Chemistry Stores.

Ex.2a) Read the following reference information.

dilation of the pupils-расширение зрачков глаз

support-крепление

shipping cap-транспортировочная крышка

mercury arc lamp-ртутная дуговая лампа

buildup-увеличение


Ex.2b) Find the following active words in the text, choose the right Russian equivalents from the dictionary . Learn these active words

glassware

application

readily

in addition to



source

wire


plug

discharge

in particular

humidity


wavelength

skin


avoid

deposit


surface

beam


valve

attempt


extinguish

Ex.3 Read the text.



Safe Laboratory Procedures and Techniques

Glassware

In general, glassware used for standard laboratory procedures is made of borosilicate glass.

Prior to carrying out an experiment the following should be done:

• check glassware for cracks, chips and other flaws; these flaws should be repaired before

the glassware is used

• select the right glassware for the job: vacuum applications require thick-walled glass, while operations carried out under pressure require specially designed glassware

• glassware under pressure or vacuum should be shielded

• if it is necessary to apply pressure to glassware, wear thick leather gloves

• stock bottles being made of soft glass which breaks readily, never heat or apply pressure/vacuum to a chemical in a stock bottle.

Electrical Equipment

In addition to the hazards posed by electrical shock, electrical equipment also presents a

source of fire hazard when used in conjunction with flammable substances.

Electrical hazards can be minimized by the following:

• only trained or qualified individuals should repair or modify electrical equipment, with

electric wires never used as supports

• unplug equipment by pulling on the plug, not the cord

• equipment having been tested, every frayed cords or broken plugs should be

repaired

• any equipment failure or overheating should be remedied immediately



Static Electricity and Spark Hazards

Protection from static discharge must be addressed in particular when handling flammable solvents. The risk is increased during periods of low humidity, the common potential sources of sparks and static discharges being:

• ungrounded metal tanks and containers

• clothing or containers made of plastic or synthetic materials

• high pressure gas cylinders upon discharge

• control systems on hotplates

• brush motors and forced air dryers.

Proper grounding of containers and equipment will significantly reduce this risk.



UV Lamps

Radiation of wavelengths below 250 nm poses a considerable risk to both eyes and exposed skin. Wear UV-absorbing safety glasses and avoid direct eye contact with the UV source; wear protective clothing to prevent burns from UV exposure.

Mercury arc lamps should be cleaned thoroughly before use. Handling with bare hands leaves oil deposits on the surface of the outer glass which form residues that will burn into the glass causing buildup of heat during the operation of the lamp. The lamp may overheat and crack, with mercury vapour being released as a consequence.

Lasers

The type and intensity of radiation available from a laser varies greatly from one instrument to another. The following general rules should be followed:

• always wear goggles that offer protection against the specific wavelength(s) of the laser in use; no available goggles protect against all laser wavelengths

• never look directly at the beam or pump source

• never view the beam pattern directly; use an image converter or other safe, indirect means

• keep a high general illumination level in areas where lasers are in operation, low levels of light causing dilation of the pupils, thereby increasing the danger to the eyes



Radiation Safety and X-ray Generators

Any equipment generating X-rays must be operated in accordance with government regulations and appropriate warning signs must be posted.



Compressed Gases

Gases used in laboratories are supplied in cylinders at high pressure. In addition to any potential chemical hazards, compressed gases are a high-energy source and therefore hazardous. The following rules must be followed:

• cylinders of all sizes must be restrained from falling by restraining devices

• during storage or transport, the cylinder cap must be in place

• no lubricant shall be used when connecting the regulator to the cylinder

• new connections shall be checked for gas leakage

• the main cylinder valve having been closed, the cylinder delivery pressure shall be set to zero to prevent a rapid release of compressed gas the next time the cylinder is opened

• empty cylinders shall have the regulators removed, the shipping cap

replaced and returned to Chemistry Stores

• unused or partially used cylinders that are of no further use shall be returned to Chemistry Stores

• in the event of a fire, the supply of a combustible gas shall be shut off before any attempt

is made to extinguish the flame

• do not expose cylinders to temperatures higher than 50°C

• use toxic, flammable or reactive gases in a fumehood

• use the appropriate regulator for the type of gas

• be aware that special handling procedures are required for certain gases, e.g. acetylene


Ex.4. Answer the following questions:



  1. What material is used for glassware in standard laboratory procedures?

  2. What precautions should be done prior to carrying out an experiment with glassware?

  3. When does electrical equipment present a source of fire hazard?

  4. How can electrical hazards be minimized?

  5. What is especially important when working with flammable solvents?

  6. When is the risk of handling flammable solvents increased?

  7. What will reduce this risk significantly?

  8. Why is the radiation of wavelengths below 250 nm dangerous?

  9. How can you protect yourself against radiation?

  10. Do all laser instruments have the same type and intensity of radiation?

  11. What general rules should be followed while working with lasers?

  12. What risk is added to any potential chemical hazard connected with compressed gases?

  13. What should you do or what mustn’t you do working with compressed gases?

Ex.5. Are the following sentences true or false?



  1. While working in a chemical laboratory check glassware for cracks, chips and other flaws after carrying out an experiment.

  2. Every student must repair or modify electrical equipment.

  3. When handling flammable solvents the risk is increased during the periods of low humidity.

  4. Radiation of wavelengths below 250 nm poses a considerable risk to ears.

  5. Mercury arc lamps should be cleaned thoroughly before use.

  6. Goggles protect against all laser wavelengths.

  7. Keep a high general illumination level in areas where lasers are in operation.

  8. Gases used in laboratories are supplied in cylinders at high pressure.

  9. Any lubricant shall be used when connecting the regulator to the cylinder with compressed gases.

  10. In the event of a fire, the supply of a combustible gas shall be shut off before any attempt is made to extinguish the flame.

Ex.6. What are the most important words for understanding the text (key words)?


Ex.7. Match a term and its definition:

  1. glove articles made of glass

  2. glassware line or division where something is broken, but not into separate parts

  3. flaw small piece cut or broken off

  4. chip something that lessens the value, beauty or perfection of a thing

  5. crack covering for the hand

Ex.8. Give the synonyms to the following words.

1.a break 2.a fragment 3. a defect 4. danger 5. to change 6. a cover.

a) hazard b) a crack c) to modify d) a flaw e) a cap f) a chip


Ex.9 Find the words with the opposite meaning in the text:

1.to plug, 2. to decrease, 3.grounded, 4.used, 5.direct


Ex.10 Define the part of speech of the underlined words in the sentences:

  1. Vacuum applications require thick-walled glass.

  2. If it is necessary to apply pressure to glassware, wear thick leather gloves.

  3. Always wear goggles that offer protection against the specific wavelength(s) of the laser in use.

  4. Gases used in laboratories are supplied in cylinders at high pressure.

Ex.11. Make a report on what you should do as well as you mustn’t do in the laboratory using glassware, electrical equipment, UV lamps, lasers and X-ray generators.



Unit 7.

The Gerund
Ex. 1. Read the sentences, find the predicate and the subject, define the tense and the voice of the predicate. Find the Gerund. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.

1. Measuring resistance is necessary in many experiments.



  1. Upon being heated to a high temperature many metallic compounds are decomposed.

  2. So far only the quantum theory has succeeded in giving a satisfactory explanation.

  3. We insisted on carrying out more tests.

  4. On being rubbed amber obtains the ability to attract objects.

  5. Iron is covered with a thin layer of tin which prevents it from rusting.

  6. In order to calculate the motion of an electron, we must investigate the accompanying wave motion instead of using classical mechanics.

  7. Bombarding atoms often results in unstable atoms that sometimes emit positrons and sometimes electrons.

  8. On being heated to a sufficient temperature any body becomes a source of light.

  9. Protecting buildings from strokes of lightning was a great achievement in the field of electricity.

  10. The motor went on running.

  11. Containers for storing solvents cannot exceed 5 liters capacity.

  12. These peroxides are among the most hazardous chemicals normally handled in chemical laboratories and in manufacturing.

  13. Avoid using peroxides in volatile solvents.

  14. A common method of disposal of liquid organic peroxides is dilution to <10% by weight prior to sending out the material for disposal by incineration.

Ex.2a) Read the following reference information.

flame arrestors-огнезащитная сетка

screw cap lid-крышка с винтовой резьбой

glass stopper-стеклянная притертая пробка

sealer-герметизирующяя прокладка

Ex.2b) Find the following active words in the text, choose the right Russian equivalents from the dictionary . Learn these active words.




exceed

in accordance with

in excess

cabinet


approve

pose


power

explosive

sensitive

half-life

rate

decomposition



violent

friction


impact

precaution

specify

dilution


volatile

spatula


contamination

grinding


screw cap lid

Ex.3. Read the text.



Handling, Storage and Disposal of Flammable Solvents

The main points to be noted are:

1. Containers for storing solvents cannot exceed 5 litres capacity; exceptions are waste solvent (20 litres) containers with flame arrestors, and stainless steel cylinders used in solvent purification systems in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.

2. A total of 300 litres of (flammable + combustible) solvents may be stored in the open lab; of this total, the maximum allowable amount of flammable solvents is 50 litres; flammable solvents stored in the open lab cannot be in containers > 1 litre capacity [i.e. 50 one-litre containers are the maximum that can be stored in any research lab].

3. Flammable waste solvents cannot be collected in the open lab in containers greater than 1 litre capacity, and are part of the capacity listed in sentence (2).

4. Quantities in excess of sentence (2) must be stored in an approved flammable storage cabinet; all flammable solvents in containers greater than 1 litre must be stored in a flammable storage cabinet, except where noted in sentence (1).

5. Quantities described in sentence (4) cannot exceed the storage capacity of the approved flammable storage cabinets in the lab.

6. All containers for storing flammable + combustible liquids must be kept closed when not in use.



Handling, Storage and Disposal of Organic Peroxides

Organic peroxides are a special class of compounds which pose unusual stability problems.

These peroxides are among the most hazardous chemicals normally handled in chemical laboratories and in manufacturing. As a class, organic peroxides are low-power explosives and may be sensitive to shock. Peroxides have a specific half-life, or rate of decomposition, under a given set of conditions. A low rate of decomposition may autoaccelerate into a violent explosion, especially in bulk quantities of peroxides. They are sensitive to heat, friction, impact and light as well as to strong oxidizing and reducing agents. All organic peroxides are extremely flammable and fires involving bulk quantities of peroxides should be approached with extreme caution.

The following precautions should be followed when handling organic peroxides and hydroperoxides:

• study and follow all precautions specified by the manufacturer

• store the peroxides at the minimum safe temperatures to minimize the rate of decomposition; do not refrigerate or store liquid or solutions of peroxides at or below the temperature at which the peroxide freezes or precipitates - peroxides in the solid state have increased sensitivity to shock and heat

• limit the quantity of peroxide handled to the minimum amount required; do not return unused peroxide to the stock container

• clean up all spills immediately by recommended procedures

• the sensitivity of most peroxides can be reduced by dilution with inert solvents such as aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g. mineral oil) but never with acetone or other ketones

• avoid using peroxides in volatile solvents when it is possible that the solvent will vaporize and thereby increase the concentration of the peroxide

• never use a metal spatula with organic peroxides; contamination by metals can cause explosive decomposition - use plastic or ceramic spatulas

• avoid friction, grinding and impact; never use glass containers with screw cap lids or glass stoppers, instead use plastic bottles and sealers

• do not use open flames, sparking equipment or intense heat sources near peroxides

• avoid ingestion, inhalation and skin contact since many peroxides are irritants

A common method of disposal of liquid organic peroxides is dilution to <10% by weight in a suitable nonvolatile hydrocarbon solvent (often mineral spirits or mineral oil) prior to sending out the material for disposal by incineration. Check the manufacturer’s recommendations prior to disposal of any specific peroxide.
Ex.4. Answer the following questions:


    1. What is the responsibility of every research supervisor?

  1. to ensure that flammable and combustible solvents are handled, stored and disposed of in accordance with special rules

  2. to collect flammable waste solvents in containers greater than 1 litre capacity

  3. to have flammable solvents in the lab

  4. to have an approved flammable storage cabinet




    1. What are the requirements for storing?

  1. containers for storing solvents cannot exceed 5 litres capacity

  2. containers for storing solvents cannot exceed 5 meters long

  3. containers for storing solvents should be made of stainless steel

  4. special purification system should be used




    1. What are organic peroxides famous for?

  1. they pose unusual stability problems

  2. they are the least hazardous chemicals normally handled in chemical laboratories and manufacturing

  3. they are high-power explosives

  4. they are not sensitive to shock




    1. What precautions should be followed when handling organic peroxides and hydroperoxides?

  1. study and follow all precautions specified by the manufacture

  2. store the peroxides at the maximum safe temperatures to minimize the rate of decomposition

  3. refrigerate or store liquid or solutions of peroxides at or below the temperature at which the peroxide freezes or precipitates

  4. use peroxides in volatile solvents when it is possible




    1. What can reduce the sensitivity of most peroxides?

  1. dilution with inert solvents

  2. acetone

  3. ketones

  4. hydroperoxides

Ex.5.Find a mistake and correct it. Consult the text.



  1. Organic peroxides has a special class of compounds which pose unusual stability problems.

  1. organic peroxides

  2. has

  3. a special class of compounds

  4. which pose

  5. unusual stability problems




  1. These peroxides are among the most hazardous chemicals handling in chemical laboratories.

  1. these peroxides

  2. are among

  3. the most hazardous chemicals

  4. handling in chemical laboratories




  1. Organic peroxides are low-power explosives and may sensitive to shock.

  1. Organic peroxides

  2. are low-power explosives

  3. and may sensitive to shock




  1. Peroxides have a special half-life or rate of decomposition under a giving set of conditions.

  1. peroxides

  2. have a special half-life

  3. or rate of decomposition

  4. under a giving set of conditions




  1. A low-rate of decomposition may to autoaccelerate into a violent explosion, especially in bulk quantities of peroxides.

  1. a low-rate of decomposition

  2. may to autoaccelerate

  3. into a violent explosion

  4. especially in bulk quantities of peroxides

Ex.6 What are the meanings of the following words in these sentences ?


a) As a class, organic peroxides are low-power explosives.

‘’class’’



  1. group having qualities of the same kind

  2. structure in society of large groups of people differing in the system of social production

  3. group of persons taught together

  4. grade or merit after examination

b) Organic peroxides are a special class of compounds which pose unusual stability problems.

“pose”


  1. to sit for a painting, photograph

  2. to create, to cause

  3. to put forward to discussion

  4. to behave in an affected way hoping to impress people

c) These peroxides are among the most hazardous chemicals normally handled in chemical laboratories and in manufacturing.

“handle”


  1. to touch, hold or move with the hand

  2. to manage or operate with the hand

  3. deal with

  4. to buy and sell (goods)

d) Organic peroxides may be sensitive to shock.

“shock”


  1. a violent impact, blow or shaking

  2. a sudden disturbance to the emotions

  3. the event or experience causing this

  4. the nerve sensation caused by an electrical charge through the body

e) A low rate of decomposition may autoaccelerate into a violent explosion.

“rate”


  1. tax on property paid to local authorities

  2. speed

  3. class or grade

  4. degree

Ex.7 Find in the text the word combinations with the word ‘’waste’’. Translate them from English into Russian.


Ex.8 How many words can you find in the text that are derived from the word ‘’to store’’?
Ex.9 Match the synonyms to the following words:

1. fire 2. to compile 3. to create 4. velocity 5. size 6. to cool 7. to steam

a) to vapourise b) to refrigerate c) bulk d) rate e) to pose f) to collect g) flame
Ex.10 Match the Russian equivalents to the following English words and word combinations.

1. hydroperoxide 2. aliphatic hydrocarbons 3. ceramic spatula 4. hydrocarbon solvent 5. mineral spirit 6. acetone 7. keton

a) гидрат перекиси b) керамический шпатель с) алифатические углеводороды d) раствор минералов в этиловом спирте e) ацетон f) углеводородный растворитель g) кетон
Ex.11 What are your recommendations to handling, storage and disposal of flammable solvents?

Unit 8.

The Infinitive
Ex. 1. Read the sentences, find the predicate and the subject, define the tense and the voice of the predicate. Find the Infinitive. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.


  1. To find the mass of the electron was of prime importance.

  2. The method to be followed is based upon some peculiar properties of these rays.

  3. To explain this simple fact is not very easy.

  4. Dalton was the first to deduce scientifically an atomic theory from experimental data.

  5. The method to be chosen in any particular case depends on many factors.

  6. To define exactly what is meant by the total heat in a body is at present still impossible.

  7. The object to be detected is placed on one side of the lens.

  8. Alpha-radiation was the first radiation to be studied in detail.

  9. This theory was the first concept of matter to be based upon experimental evidence.

  10. To determine the composition of this substance is of great importance for us.

  11. To determine the composition of this substance we always use this reaction.

  12. One of the simplest measures to reduce or eliminate a hazard is to substitute a less hazardous or non-hazardous material for one which presents a high level of risk.

  13. A second measure is to reduce the scale of an operation to reduce the level of risk.

  14. The most common method to prevent exposure to hazardous chemicals by inhalation is to work in a ventilated work space provided in a fumehood.

  15. Annual inspection and servicing are carried out on fumehoods to ensure proper operation.

Ex.2a) Read the following reference information.

sash-заслонка, задвижка

hood-вытяжное отверстие

flexible ventilation ducts with flared openings-гибкие вентиляционные воздуховоды с отверстием в форме раструба

to compromise-ставить под угрозу нормальное функционирование системы безопасности

carbon tetrachloride-тетрахлорметан, четыреххлористый углерод

Ex.2b) Find the following active words in the text, choose the right Russian equivalents from the dictionary . Learn these active words.


variety

eliminate

substitute

damage


compatible

waste


annual

offer


sash

at least

impede

escape


restrict

alarm


height

particularly


Ex.3 Read the text.



Safety Equipment and Emergency Procedures

A variety of protective measures are available for dealing with the hazards present in the chemical laboratory. One of the simplest measures to reduce or eliminate a hazard is to substitute a less hazardous or non-hazardous material for one which presents a high level of risk. For example many older literature procedures may use solvents such as benzene or carbon tetrachloride for routine applications; it is now known that benzene is a potent carcinogen and that carbon tetrachloride can cause serious liver damage. Substitution of these solvents with toluene or dichloromethane may pose less risk if compatible with the procedure.

A second measure is to reduce the scale of an operation to reduce the level of risk. Smaller reactions are less likely to cause serious accidents if something goes wrong; they also produce less waste.

Fumehoods

The most common method to prevent exposure to hazardous chemicals by inhalation is to

work in a ventilated work space provided in a fumehood. Protection is provided by air flow through the fumehood. Annual inspection and servicing are carried out on fumehoods to ensure proper operation however it is important to note that the protection offered by a fumehood can be compromised if the sash is opened too high or if the air flow is obstructed by equipment or chemicals stored in the fumehood. Keep the following points in mind when using a fumehood:

• keep all apparatus at least six inches from the front of the hood; airflow is less likely to be impeded and vapours are less likely to escape

• don’t use the hood to store chemicals and equipment; they restrict airflow

• make sure that the airflow monitor/alarm is functioning properly

• proper fumehood ventilation of labs requires that doors to the lab be kept closed

• sash should be kept at a safe operating height



Local Ventilation

Flexible ventilation ducts with flared openings can also be used to provide ventilation in local areas, particularly with equipment which, because of size or function, cannot be placed in a fumehood. Any equipment which releases hazardous fumes during operation must have local ventilation.


Ex.4. Put the items of the plan in the right order.

Plan


  1. The rules to be kept in mind when using a fumehood.

  2. Local ventilation.

  3. The most common method to prevent exposure to hazardous chemicals.

  4. Protective measures available for dealing with the hazardous present in the chemical laboratory.

Ex.5. Here are the answers to some questions. Write the questions.




  1. Why---------------------------------------------------------?

Because it is a potent carcinogen.


  1. What-----------------------------------------------------------?

It can cause serious liver damage.
3.What--------------------------------------------------------------?

Substitution of these solvents with toluene or tetrachloride.


4.What--------------------------------------------------------------?

Smaller reactions.


5.What----------------------------------------------------------?

Fumehood



  1. What------------------------------------------------------?

Local ventilation dust.

Ex.6. Substitute the following words and word combinations by the synonyms and the expressions with the same meaning.

1. to deal with 2. to cause serious damages 3. scale of operation 4. to be likely 5. airflow monitor/ alarm 6. an offence

a) crime or violation, b) emergency equipment, c) to ruin, d) size, e) probably, f) to work

Ex.7. Make a short summary of the text. Begin your summary with the following words:

There are different measures to reduce or eliminate a hazard in the chemical laboratory. One of them is ………….

Finish your summary with the following words: Any equipment which release hazardous fumes must…………….
Ex.8. There is a list of key words:

protective, measure, available, hazard, reduce, eliminate, substitute, solvent, risk prevent.

Add more key words to the list.
Ex.9. Write an abstract using the key words and make a computer presentation.

Unit 9

The Complex Object

Ex. 1. Read the sentences, find the predicate and the subject, define the tense and the voice of the predicate. Find the Complex Object. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.

1. Experiments have proved the pressure of a gas at fixed temperature to depend on its concentration.


  1. We may safely expect this prediction to be quite reliable.

  2. They expected the acceleration to be different for different weights but this was not the case.

  3. We consider the electric current to flow in the opposite direction to the motion of the electrons which constitute it.

  4. We find this value to be accurate enough.

  5. We know heat to have been of great importance for the development of industry.

  6. We expected the core to be coated with a thin layer of pure rubber.

  7. Scientists assume the distance between these two planets to have increased.

  8. Our research group believes the temperature inside the furnace to be changing.

  9. We consider silver to be the best conducting material.

  10. They expect these new data to be investigated soon.

  11. We observe rays of light from the same point source to be nonparallel to each other.

  12. We may suppose the alpha particles within the nucleus to be in motion.

  13. The students heard the professor speak about his experimental work.

  14. We know short pants and open-toed shoes or sandals to provide no protection from spills of hazardous chemicals.

Ex.2a) Read the following reference information.

chafing-раздражение кожи

sensitization-повышение чувствительности

sensitizer chemical-светочувствительное вещество

chlorinated solvent-хлорированный растворитель

ethylene dichloride-дихлорэтан

to defat-обезжиривать

naphtha-растворитель

prescription glasses-корректирующие очки

ear muffs-противошумные наушники

Ex.2b) Find the following active words in the text, choose the right Russian equivalents from the dictionary. Learn these active words.


encounter

environment

penetrate

stream


target

defat


tissue

require


fit

complete

splash

provide


cover

rubber


resistant

disposable

permeable

dust


arrange

routine


noise

ear plug


ear muff

Ex.3 Read the text.



Personal Protective Equipment

Of the ways chemicals can affect the human body, exposure through skin contact is one of the most significant. The skin does a wonderful job acting as a barrier to those conditions normally encountered in the environment; however, as our workplace environments use more and more chemical substances, our skin can no longer provide adequate protection on its own.

Chemical substances can act on unprotected skin in three ways:


  • Local Damage - The action of many chemicals is limited to the skin itself. Corrosive burns, irritation, and chafing due to loss of skin oils are a few examples.

  • Sensitization - Sensitizer chemicals may not have any initial effect, but will cause the skin to react, during subsequent exposures, to quantities much smaller than would otherwise have any affect.

  • Absorption - The skin provides no barrier against some chemicals, which can penetrate freely and enter the blood stream affecting such target organs as the liver and nervous systems.

A chemical may cause damage by more than one of the above effects. Some examples include chlorinated solvents, such as ethylene dichloride, which will defat the skin causing irritation and tissue breakdown, also can permeate the skin possibly causing liver and kidney damage.

Appropriate clothing and shoes are part of your protective equipment. We should assume short pants and open-toed shoes or sandals to provide no protection from spills of hazardous chemicals. Shoes that cover the feet completely and long pants or a lab coat must be worn.

Gloves are available in a variety of materials including natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile and vinyl. Each type of material is resistant to only a limited range of chemicals therefore no single type of glove is suitable for all situations. Wearing the wrong type of glove can cause more damage by keeping chemicals in contact with your skin. Consult manufacturers data before selecting the appropriate type of gloves.

NOTE: Disposable latex rubber gloves are permeable or reactive to a variety of common chemicals including benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromic acid, ethyl ether, hexane, methylene chloride, naphtha, nitric acid, styrene, sulphuric acid, tetrahydrofuran, toluene, and xylene. They are not recommended for use with these chemicals.

Eye protection requires safety glasses (or prescription glasses) fitted with side shields to be worn in labs when hazardous chemicals are in use. Safety glasses do not provide complete protection to the eyes from spills and splashes. Where more protection is required, such as when working with corrosive substances, either safety goggles or a full face shield may be recommended.

Respirators are designed to protect the wearer from hazardous vapours or dust. A wide variety of respirators are available and are designed to deal with different substances in various situations. The use of respirators requires proper selection, fitting and training which must be arranged through the Department of Environmental Health and Safety

Routine exposure to noise in excess of 90dB requires the use of hearing protection (i.e. ear plugs, ear muffs); for extended exposure to noise in excess of 80 dB, hearing protection is advised.
Ex.4. Put the items of the plan in the right order

Plan


  1. Gloves.

  2. Hearing protection.

  3. Protecting clothing.

  4. Skin protection.

  5. Eye protection.

  6. Respirators.

Ex.5. Write the questions to the given answers.



  1. Where------------------------------------------------?

In labs where hazardous chemicals are in use.


  1. What---------------------------------------?

Safety goggles or full face shield.


  1. What-------------------------------------------?

Appropriate clothing and shoes.


  1. What clothing--------------------------------------?

Short pants and open –toed shoes or sandals.


  1. What--------------------------------------------------?

Shoes that cover the feet completely and long pants.


  1. When------------------------------------------------------?

Before selecting the appropriate type of gloves.
Ex.6. Substitute the following words by the synonyms .

1. corrosive 2. available 3. hazardous 4. to protect 5. proper

a) accessible, b) risky or dangerous, c) to shield, d) appropriate, e) erosive or poisoning
Ex.7. There is a list of key words:

Requirement, protection, safety goggles, full face shield, hazardous, glove, damage, vapour, dust, resistant

Add some more key words to the list.
Ex.8. Write an abstract using the key words and make a computer presentation.

Ex.9. Make a short summary of the text.

Begin your summary with the following words:

Personal protective equipment is very important when working with hazardous chemicals. This equipment includes…

Finish your summary with the following words:

This equipment must be worn in labs when…



Unit 10

The Complex Subject

Ex. 1. Read the sentences, find the predicate and the subject, define the tense and the voice of the predicate. Find the Complex Subject . Translate the sentences from English into Russian.



  1. Nowadays semiconductors are known to be increasingly used in TV sets, radio sets and computers.

  2. They are certain to achieve good results if they employ the new technique.

  3. All the waves in a laser beam proved to have the same wavelength.

  4. Light intensity proves to be measurable.

  5. They are known to have provided all for the experiment.

  6. The laser beam seems to have unlimited industrial possibilities.

  7. Alpha-rays were found to be merely positively charged helium atoms.

  8. Only a limited number of reactions are known to be influenced by light.

  9. Deformation appeared to have no measurable effect of conductivity.

  10. The lack of data is certain to slow down the work.

  11. If an emergency shower is considered to be necessary, activate the shower for preliminary decontamination.

  12. All laboratories are supposed to be equipped with “C” class fire extinguishers.

  13. You are sure to be aware of the location and/or use of all fire extinguishers, fire alarm switches and fire exits in his area.

  14. There are many classes of compounds that are known to present certain hazards.

  15. All individuals who are likely to be exposed to the spill should be warned immediately.

Ex.2a) Read the following reference information.

preliminary decontamination-специальная обработка \ предварительная дезинфекция

pyrophoric metal-самовоспламеняющийся металл

cleanup-очистка

spill kit-устройство для сбора разлитой жидкости
Ex.2b) Find the following active words in the text, choose the right Russian equivalents from the dictionary . Learn these active word.


access

obstruct

flush

removal


consider

preliminary

proceed

contaminate

switch

area


promptly

efficiently

properly

cleanup


facilitate

dustpan


immediate

notify


Ex.3 Read the text

Emergency Equipment

Eyewash Fountains and Showers

Eyewash fountains and showers are located in the corridors outside research labs, and have instructions for their use posted. Access to this equipment must not be obstructed in any way. Additional safety showers are located in the washrooms at the end of each research corridor. If it is necessary to use an eyewash fountain, hold your eyelids open with your fingers and roll your eyes back and forth while washing them. Flush your eyes for at least 15 minutes to ensure removal of the chemical.

If an emergency shower is considered to be necessary, activate the shower for preliminary decontamination, then proceed to a shower located in a washroom to remove contaminated clothing as rapidly as possible.

Fire Extinguishers

All laboratories are supposed to be equipped with “C” class fire extinguishers (CO 2) which are suitable for most fires except metal fires; those labs with significant quantities of pyrophoric metals are also equipped with “D” class extinguishers. These extinguishers are only designed to fight small local fires. Do not attempt to fight large fires; evacuate the building and call for professional fire fighters. All use of fire extinguishers must be reported to the Department Safety Officer.



Fire Emergency

You are sure to be aware of the location and/or use of all fire extinguishers, fire alarm switches and fire exits in his area. If the fire cannot safely be controlled with a fire extinguisher, alert all persons in area of the fire emergency, activate the nearest fire alarm, check to ensure that the area has been evacuated, then leave the building to the nearest safe location.



Chemical Spills

All spills should be cleaned up promptly, efficiently and properly. All individuals who are likely to be exposed to the spill should be warned immediately.

If the spill involves nonvolatile, nonflammable and nontoxic material then it is certain to be cleaned up as directed by your supervisor. Most cleanups of liquid spills are facilitated by the use of an absorbent material that will neutralize the liquid where appropriate (spill kits are located in the safety locker found in each research lab). Cleanup can then be carried out using a dustpan, brush and appropriate protective equipment. The spill area should be washed following the cleanup.

If a hazardous chemical such as a flammable, toxic or highly reactive substance is spilled, immediately warn everyone in the area. Shut down all equipment and leave the area. Your supervisor should be notified immediately and will be responsible for the proper cleanup of the contaminated area. Any clothing that has been contaminated should be removed as quickly as possible and decontaminated where possible. Waste from chemical spills must be disposed of in an appropriate manner.


Ex.3. Answer the following questions.

  1. Where are the eye fountains and showers located?

  2. What is located in the washrooms at the end of each research corridor?

  3. How can you use an eyewash fountain?

  4. What must you do if an emergency shower is necessary?

  5. What are all laboratories equipped with?

  6. What are the extinguishers designed for?

  7. What should you do in case of large fires?

  8. What is everybody sure to be aware of?

  9. What should you do if the fire cannot be safely controlled with a fire extinguisher?

  10. What rules should be followed working with spills?

  11. How are most cleanups of liquid spills facilitated?

  12. Where are spill kits located?

  13. What must be done immediately if a hazardous chemical is spilled?

  14. Who will be responsible for the proper cleanup of the contaminated area?

Ex.4 Are these sentences true or false?




  1. Eyewash fountains and showers have instructions for their use posted.

  2. “C” class fire extinguishers (CO2) are suitable for all fires.

  3. You must fight large fires with any fire extinguishers you have.

  4. If the fire cannot be safely controlled with a fire extinguisher alert all persons in the area of the fire emergency, activate the nearest fire alarm, check to ensure that the area has been evacuated, then leave the building to the nearest safe location.

  5. All persons who are likely to be exposed to the spill should be sent to hospital immediately.

  6. If a hazardous chemical is spilled, notify your supervisor immediately.

Ex.5 Find all the key words and translate them into Russian.


Ex.6 Find derivatives to the following words, define what part of speech they belong to and give their translation.

to locate, to remove, to equip.


Ex. 7 Match the synonyms.

1) to notify a) area

2) location b) to leave

3) to be evacuated c) to report


Ex.8 Find 6 word combinations with the word “fire” in the text. Translate them.
Ex.9.Tell us what you should do in different cases of emergency.

Make up a computer presentation.






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