Учебное пособие по английскому языку Издательство Иркутского государственного технического университета 2015 (075. 8)


Part 3. Safety Problem in Aviation



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Part 3. Safety Problem in Aviation
Unit 7. Weather
Active vocabulary
1. achievement – достижение;

2. collision – столкновение;

3. regulation- регулирование, правило, регламентация;

4. failure –отказ, провал, сбой, неудача;

5. malfunction - неисправность, сбой;

6.visibility – видимость;

7. to revise – пересмотреть;

8. provision – положения;

9. sufficient – достаточный;

10. proficiency – умение, знание, владение, мастерство;

11.humidity – влажность;

12. to equip – оснастить, оборудовать, обустроить;

13. forecast – прогноз;

14. to broadcast – транслировать, вещать;

15. due to – из-за, благодаря, за счет;

16. to affect – влиять, повлиять;

17. dew point – точка росы;

18. reliability – надежность, достоверность;

19. to request – запрашивать;

20. accurate – точный;

21. annually – ежегодно.
Guess the meaning of the following words : problem in aviation, aviation specialists, the result of progress, engineering, aerodynamics, meteorology, psychology, medicine, economics, high standards, aviation industry, aircraft structure, radiotelephony communications, standard phraseology, potential situations, standardization, all spheres of aviation, temperature, atmospheric pressure, special phenomena, meteorological service, zero visibility.
A. Safety
Safety is the most important problem in aviation. The prevention of collisions between aircraft in the air and on the ground is the main task of aviation specialists.

The achievement of aviation safety is the result of progress in many sciences and disciplines including engineering, aerodynamics, meteorology, psychology, medicine and economics.

Safety is ensured by thousands of ICAO and governmental regulations, by high standards in the design and manufacture of an aircraft and by strict procedures of airline safety practices.

The aviation industry is constantly taking steps to prevent accidents but the crashes do occur time after time. They result from different causes: failure in the aircraft structure, human errors, navigational failures, malfunctioning of airborne and ground aids, hazardous weather conditions and so on.

Poor knowledge of English can also contribute to or result in an accident or incident. Therefore ICAO revised the provisions related to the use of the language for radiotelephony communications and demands good discipline to follow more closely to standard phraseology in all air-ground exchanges.

Experience has shown that phraseology alone is not sufficient to cover all of the potential situations, particularly in critical or emergency situations. That’s why proficiency in common or plain language is also of great importance.

One of ICAO’s chief activities is standardization in all spheres of aviation operations. The main ICAO document is SARPS (International Standards and Recommended Practices). Its main task is to provide the necessary level of standardization for safe and regular air operations.
B. Weather
Weather is composed of a number of elements such as the temperature and humidity of the air, atmospheric pressure, the speed and direction of the wind, air visibility and of special phenomena such as fog, storms and others.

Pilots need the information about weather conditions along the route of flight and at the destination aerodrome. The object of the meteorological service is to contribute to safety, efficiency and regularity of air traffic.

There exist some sources of aviation weather information: surface observation, radar observation, automatic meteorological observation, pilot reports and others.

At every airport there is a meteorological station which is equipped with special instruments recording all changes in the atmosphere. They indicate air pressure and temperature, record wind speed and direction as well as the movements of clouds. All the observations are summed up on special weather charts. The observations at the airports are made every 30 minutes and every 15 minutes if the weather suddenly gets worse or better.

Preparing for the flight the pilot is to get the latest weather information and weather forecasts along the planned route and at the point of destination and the alternates.

At a great number of met. stations situated along the airways complete weather observations are made and then transmitted to weather forecast centres by telephone, telegraph, radio and thousands of miles of teletype circuits. Thus, the pilot has a complete picture of the weather.

20-30 minutes before entering the aerodrome area the controller gives the pilot full information about the terminal weather. At many airports the information helpful for landing and taking off is continuously broadcast on a navigational aid frequency. Prior to descent the pilot requests the actual weather and aerodrome conditions for the airport he is going to land.

It is considered that landing of an aircraft is probably the most difficult operation which a pilot has to perform and the standards of visibility required are higher than for any other phase of flight.

Met. services for aviation require much work to collect data and prepare weather charts. This work is especially difficult for long-distance flights over vast areas with different climatic conditions.
A. Comprehension
1. Read texts A and B and answer the following questions:

1) What is the most important problem in aviation?

2) What is the main task of aviation specialists?

3) By what means is safety ensured?

4) What factors may cause accidents?

5) What can you say about the role of language in the problem of safety?

6) What is the main ICAO document?

7) What elements are included in weather report?

8) What is the object of meteorological service?

9) How often is weather observation made at the airport?

10) What weather information does the pilot get before the flight?

11) Do the pilots obtain weather information while in flight?

12) When does the controller give the pilot full information about the terminal weather?

13) What phase of flight does especially depend on weather conditions?


2. Read text B. Arrange the sentences below in the order they appear in the text.

1) There exist some sources of aviation weather information.

2) Weather is composed of a number of elements.

3) Complete weather observations are transmitted to weather forecast centres.

4) Special instruments indicate air pressure and temperature, record wind speed and direction.

5) The standards of visibility required are higher during landing.

6) The controller gives the pilot full information about the terminal weather.
B. Vocabulary practice
1. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1) The achievement of aviation safety is the result of progress in many sciences and disciplines.

2) Accidents result from two causes: failure in the aircraft structure and human errors.

3) Poor knowledge of English can never contribute to an accident.

4) The main ICAO document is SARPS (International Standards and Recommended Practices).

5) Meteorological station is equipped with special instruments recording all changes in the atmosphere.

6) The observations are made every 30 minutes if the weather is bad.

7) Weather observations are transmitted to pilots by telephone.


2. Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the words only once.

Governmental, take, poor, chief, atmospheric, meteorological, request, standards, collect, long-distance.

1)……….steps; 6) …….flights;

2) to.……weather conditions; 7)……regulations;

3)…………activity; 8)…... pressure;

4) ………..knowledge; 9) to……data;

5) …… observations; 10)……of visibility.


3. Give Russian equivalents for:

1) strict procedures;

2) navigational failures;

3) hazardous weather conditions;

4) to revise the provisions;

5) all air-ground exchanges;

6) regular air operations;

7) destination aerodrome;

8) movements of clouds;

9) complete weather observations;

10) prior to descent;

11) to indicate air pressure.


4. Underline the correct word (s) in bold.

1) The prevention of collisions is the main task/ work of aviation specialists.

2) Phraseology alone is not sufficient/ efficient to cover all of the emergency situations.

3) One of ICAO’s activities is standardization in all spheres/ parts of aviation operations.

4) Landing of an aircraft is probably the most difficult operation/ action.

5) Such work/ job is especially difficult for long-distance flights.

6) Prior to descent the pilot requests/ gives the actual weather and aerodrome conditions.

7) Crashes can often result from failure in the aircraft structure/ design.


5. Fill in the correct preposition then make sentences using the completed phrases:

1) the prevention … collisions…. aircraft … the air;

2) to occur time …. time;

3) to result … an accident;

4) related … the use … the language;

5) to be … great importance;

6) standardization … safe air operations;

7) to contribute … safety;

8) to be equipped …. special instruments;

9) to be summed … …. special weather charts.


6. Give English equivalents for:

Безопасность, самая важная проблема, предотвращение столкновений, высокие стандарты, предпринимать шаги, слабое знание языка, пересмотреть положения, основная деятельность, обеспечить необходимый уровень, сводки погоды, погодные условия, давление воздуха, скорость ветра, направление ветра, нижняя граница облачности, прогноз погоды, центр прогнозирования погоды, прогностические карты, станция обеспечения полета, погода аэродрома посадки.


7. Fill in the following table:



Verb

Noun

Adjective

rely










speciality










governmental

differ










navigator










communicative




criticize




-----------




proficient

-----------

visibility




collide




-------------


8. Choose the correct word:

1) The aviation industry is taking steps to prevent accidents but/when the crashes occur time after time.

2) Experience has shown that/ and phraseology is not sufficient to cover all emergency situations.

3) When/ because the pilot prepares for the flight, he is to get the latest weather information.

4) There are many meteorological stations where/ that special instruments record all changes in the atmosphere.

5) Landing of an aircraft is the most difficult operation therefore/ when the standards of visibility are higher.

6) For many decades attempts were made to make flying independent of weather conditions because/ that fog, rain often affect the aircraft operation.

7) When/ although pilots land under low visibility conditions, they are given all the necessary information.
9. Read the text. Fill in the gaps with words from the list.

Pressure, low, accuracy, installed, rain, quicker, increased, information, space, flights.

Nowadays meteorological services for aviation are almost fully automated. Automated Surface Weather Systems are … at the airports of many countries. The System provides for the measurements, processing and display of the following meteorological parameters: wind direction and speed, air temperature and dew point t°, runway visual range, minimum cloud height, barometric …..

It is known that fog, and clouds often affect the aircraft operation. For many decades attempts were made to make flying independent of weather conditions or, in other words, to allow an aircraft to land under very… or zero visibility.

The use of lasers makes it possible to give pilots all the necessary … when they land under low visibility conditions. The introduction of these systems has greatly … the reliability and safety of ….

Satellite meteorology has become an independent area of science. Weather forecasts based on information from outer … make forecasts more accurate and help to save a great sum of money annually.

At present the work of meteorologist becomes easier thanks to computers which make calculations … and due to them the weather forecast service is becoming more reliable. The use of satellites and computers greatly increases the … of weather forecasts.


10. Match the numbers to the letters:

1. meteorological; a) pressure;

2. barometric; b) calculations;

3. to make; c) visibility;

4. zero; d) meteorology;

5. satellite; e) space;

6. outer; f) launching;

7. to save. g) money.


11. Form the nouns from the following verbs and give Russian equivalents:

To direct, to observe, to equip, to provide, to achieve, to ensure, to fail, to provide, to relate, to criticize.


12. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense:

1) If computers … (to make) calculations, the weather forecast service will become more reliable.

2) If ICAO provided the necessary level of standardization, air operations … (to be) safe and regular.

3) If I … (to be) a pilot, I would request the actual weather and aerodrome conditions.

4) The observations are made every 15 minutes if the weather suddenly… (to get) worse or better.

5) Poor knowledge of English … (to result) in an incident if the pilot had known English well.

6) If the controller … (to give) the pilot full information about the terminal weather, he would have avoided an emergency situation.
13. Form the opposites with a help of prefixes – un, -in, -ir:

Reliable, accurate, regular, safe, known, sufficient, necessary, critical.



14. Translate the following sentences into English:

Самая важная проблема в авиации – безопасность. Для обеспечения безопасности полетов ИКАО установила специальные правила и процедуры. Все государства – члены ИКАО должны строго соблюдать все правила. Одна из самых важных задач авиационных специалистов – предотвращать столкновение самолетов в воздухе и на земле. Достижения в технике, аэродинамике и других науках повышают авиационную безопасность. Еще одним условием, обеспечивающим авиационную безопасность, является стандартизация во всех авиационных операциях. Хорошее знание английского языка необходимо для обеспечения безопасности полетов.

Погода состоит из таких элементов как температура и влажность воздуха, атмосферное давление, скорость и направление ветра. Дождь, гроза, туман, и другие явления опасны для полета. В каждом аэропорту есть метеостанция со специальными приборами, регистрирующими все изменения в атмосфере. Имея все данные о погоде, синоптики составляют погодную карту. Во многих аэропортах информация о погоде непрерывно транслируется на определенной частоте. Посадка самолета – самая трудная операция.

Сейчас большинство метеостанций почти полностью автоматизировано. Использование спутников и компьютеров повышает точность прогноза погоды.


С. Discussion
1. Using the information given in the text “Weather”, make up the weather forecast for tomorrow. Discuss the following meteorological parameters as wind direction and speed, air temperature and barometric pressure.

2. Speak on the modern methods of accurate forecasting of weather conditions. Use the following words to express reality: in fact, actually, as a matter of fact, in practice etc.



Unit 8. Human Factor
Active vocabulary
1. to address – адресовать, обратиться;

2. conviction – убеждение;

3. turning point – поворотный момент;

4. to encourage – поощрять;

5. challenge – вызов, проблема;

6. to pursue – преследовать;

7. concern – беспокойство, забота;

8. awareness – осведомленность, осознание;

9. ultimate – окончательный, конечный;

10. relevant – актуальный, относящийся к;

11. to anticipate – ожидать, предвидеть;

12. consequence – последствие;

13. to approve – одобрить, утвердить;

14. extent – степень;

15. enhancing – усиление, повышение;

16. flow – поток, течение;

17. current – текущий, современный;

18. to carry out – выполнять;

19. simulator – тренажер;

20. simplicity – простота;

21. flexibility – гибкость;

22. urgent – срочный;

23. concern – озабоченность, обеспокоенность;

24. Amendment – поправка;

25. Annex – приложение;

26. sufficient – достаточный.


Guess the meaning of the following words : human factor, critical aspect, decade, symposia- symposium, New Zealand, Chile, regional seminars , transportation of passengers, program, individual, to coordinate, to dominate, medical examination, periodic intervals, absolutely, emotional balance, instinct, personnel.
A. Human Factor in Aviation
Human factor is a critical aspect of aviation safety, one that ICAO began to address more than a decade ago.

a…………………………….

ICAO organized the first in a series of global symposia on flight safety and human factors in 1990. From the beginning, when the first event was held in a city known then as Leningrad, there was a conviction that international aviation could make enormous progress in improving safety through the application of human factors knowledge. The first symposium was a turning point and the stage for following meetings in the United States in 1993, in New Zealand in 1996 and, finally in Chile in 1999. There have been encouraging developments since 1990, but we still have challenges to pursue: after the Leningrad symposium, human error remains a significant safety concern.

b…………………………….

The purpose of the worldwide symposia and 10 regional seminars which were held in the past decade was to increase the awareness of States regional seminars, industry and organizations in all ICAO regions about the importance of human factors. The reason the community must respond to is, of course, to ensure that civil aviation continues to achieve its ultimate goal: the safe and efficient transportation of passengers and goods.

c……………………………

The ICAO flight safety and human factors program is safety–oriented and operationally relevant. Moreover, it is practical since it must deal with real problems in a real world. Through the program, ICAO has provided the aviation community with the means and tools to anticipate human error and contain its negative consequences in the operational environment. Furthermore, ICAO’s efforts are aimed at the system – not the individual.

d……………………………

The global aviation safety plan (GASP) was developed by the ICAO Air Navigation Commission in 1997 and subsequently approved by the ICAO Council. GASP was designed to coordinate and provide a common direction to the efforts of States and the aviation industry to the extent possible in safety matters. It is a tool that allows ICAO to focus resources and set priorities giving emphasis to those activities that will contribute the most to enhancing safety. Therefore the flight safety and human factors program is among the six major activities that comprise the plan.
B. Air Traffic Control
The ATC’s first concern is safety, the prevention of collision between aircraft in the air and orderly flow of traffic.

To perform their exacting duties air traffic controllers need adequate facilities. The introduction of radars greatly assists in expediting the flow of traffic reducing the separation minima. Computers are also a powerful tool. They give assistance by taking over routine tasks but they must not dominate the system. The human controller is much more efficient than any current system because it is he who takes responsibility for controlling aircraft and it is he who takes final decisions in all situations including conflicting and emergency.

During periods of heavy traffic, controllers work under high stress. They may control several aircraft simultaneously, their number sometimes exceeding 15 and even more. Controllers’ slightest error may cause loss of human lives and property.

Top physical and mental condition is a vital requirement for ATC controllers. Therefore they undergo strict medical examinations which are repeated at periodic intervals.

The problem of the selection and training of ATC personnel is extremely important. The controllers should possess a number of qualities which are absolutely necessary for them: a high degree of morality, a very good nervous and emotional balance, a sound critical judgment, a readiness for decisions and an instinct for team work. To become a highly professional controller one must be proficient not only in specialized aviation English but also in plain language because aviation safety depends on accurate pilot – controller communications.

The training of ATC personnel is carried out by different methods using various teaching aids, systems and simulators. Modern simulators can reproduce the whole ATC task from take-off to landing including all maneuvers even the dangerous ones.



A. Comprehension
1. Read text A and fill in the headings.

1) The Flight Safety and Human Factors Program.

2) The First Symposium.

3) The Global Aviation Safety Plan.

4) The Purpose of the Symposia.



2. Read text B. Arrange the sentences below in the order they appear in the text.

1) Traffic controllers may control several aircraft simultaneously.

2) Computers give assistance by taking over routine tasks.

3) Modern simulators can reproduce the whole ATC task.

4) Traffic controllers undergo strict medical examination.

5) A highly professional controller must be proficient in English.


3. Answer the following questions:

1) When and where was the first symposium on flight safety held?

2) How many symposia on flight safety were held by ICAO?

3) What was the purpose of the symposia and seminars?

4) Where is the knowledge of human factors applied?

5) What is the ultimate goal of civil aviation?

6) What is the ICAO flight safety and human factors program?

7) What for was the global aviation safety plan developed?

8) Why is the flight safety and human factors program so important?

9) What is the main task of ATC activity?

10) What systems do controller use to control air traffic?

11) What are the working conditions of controllers?

12) What is one of the vital requirements for ATC controllers?

13) How often do they undergo medical examinations?

14) What qualities should a person possess to become a controller?

15) How are controllers trained?
B. Vocabulary practice
1. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1) The first symposium was held in Leningrad in 1990.

2) The purpose of the worldwide meetings was to increase the awareness about the importance of human factors.

3) Computers take final decisions in all situations including conflicting and emergency.

4) Traffic controllers mustn’t control several aircraft simultaneously.

5) Aviation safety depends on accurate pilot – controller communications.

6) The human controller is less efficient than any current system.
2. Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the words only once.

Enormous, turning, significant, increase, achieve, powerful, vital, plain, critical, anticipate.

1)……….point; 6) …….progress;

2) to.……awareness; 7)……requirement;

3)…………tool; 8)…... language;

4) ………..concern; 9) to……goal;

5) to……..human error; 10)……judgment.


3. Give Russian equivalents for:

1) encouraging developments;

2) challenges to pursue;

3) ultimate goal;

4) operationally relevant;

5) negative consequences;

6) operational environment;

7) to provide a common direction;

8) to focus resources;

9) give emphasis;

10) adequate facilities;

11) heavy traffic;

12) to cause loss of human lives;

13) top physical and mental condition;

14) a high degree of morality;

15) to reproduce the whole ATC task.


4. Underline the correct word (s) in bold.

1) ICAO organized the first global symposium on human errors/ factors in 1990.

2) The global aviation safety plan was developed/ held by the ICAO Air Navigation Commission.

3) The flight safety and human factors program/ plan is among the six major activities.

4) During/ Among periods of heavy traffic controllers work under high stress.

5) The problem of the selection and training/ teaching of ATC personnel is extremely important.

6) A controller must be proficient not only in special/ specialized aviation English.

7) The controllers should possess a high/ tall degree of morality.



5. Fill in the correct preposition then make sentences using the completed phrases:

1) the first … a series … global symposia;

2) the stage … following meetings;

3) to deal … real problems … a real world;

4) to be aimed … the system;

5) the introduction … radars;

6) to take responsibility … controlling aircraft;

7) to work… high stress;

8) to repeat … periodic intervals;

9) instinct for team work;

10) to be proficient … language;

11) to depend… accurate communications;

12) to be carried … … different methods.
6. Give English equivalents for:

Знание человеческого фактора; важное дело для безопасности; идея систем связи, навигации, обзора и управления воздушным пространством и воздушным движением; программа ИКАО по безопасности полетов и человеческому фактору; план по авиационной безопасности в мировом масштабе; комиссия ИКАО по воздушной навигации; вопросы безопасности; поток движения самолетов; принимать последнее решение; контролировать одновременно; малейшая ошибка; проходить медицинскую комиссию; отбор и обучение; высокопрофессиональный; командная работа.


7. Which word is the odd one out in each group and why?

1. series, factors, facilities, radars;

2. strict, mental, control, possible;

3. personnel, controller, elevator, passenger;

4. heavy, property, community, safety.
8. Choose the correct verb form:

1) I’d rather … a very good nervous and emotional balance.

a) possess; b) to possess; c) possessing.

2) I’d rather you … strict medical examination.

a) to undergo; b) undergo; c) underwent.

3) I wish I … a highly professional controller.

a) am; b) were; c) been.

4) You’d better … proficient not only in specialized aviation English.

a) be; b) to be; c) being.

5) It’s time … several aircraft simultaneously.

a) control; b) controlling; c) to control.

6) I wish ICAO … the first global symposium on flight safety in New York.

a) organize; b) organized; c) had organized.

7) I wish ICAO … the most to enhancing safety.

a) contribute; b) would contribute; c) to contribute.
9. Translate the following words into Russian paying attention to the means of word formation (prefixes and suffixes):

1) order – orderly;

2) exact – exactly – exactness;

3) reduce – reduction;

4) power – powerful – powerless;

5) responsible – responsibility – response – respond;

6) strict – strictly – strictness;

7) train – trainer – trainee – training;

8) simulate – simulator – simulation;

9) operate – operation – operative – operator – operational – operationally;

10) communicate – communication – communicative – communicable ;

11) improve – improvement – improvable – improver.


10. Read the text. Fill in the gaps with appropriate forms of the verb (infinitive, participle, gerund).
English as a World Language and an International Aviation Language
English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, almost in all the continents of the world. This … (export) of English began in the XVII century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, the great growth of population in the United States together with massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth century has given the English language its present … (stand) in the world. Besides, basic characteristics of English can also … (contribute) to the situation that nowadays it is the most spread language on Earth. These characteristics are: simplicity of forms (very few endings); flexibility (the same word can … (operate) as some different parts of speech); openness of vocabulary (English words are frequently admitted by other languages). At present English is the language of business, technology, sport and aviation.

There are four … (work) languages in ICAO – English, French, Spanish and Russian. But all meetings, conferences and assemblies are conducted in English and then all materials are translated into other languages.

The most urgent problem in aviation is safety. The progress in safety is achieved by intensive efforts in various spheres – engineering sciences, meteorology, psychology, medicine, economics and “last but not least” the English language. Insufficient English language proficiency often results in accidents and incidents.

Concern over the role of language in airline accidents brought real actions. So in March 2003 ICAO adopted Amendments to ICAO Annexes 1, 6, 10 and 11. These Amendments make clear and extend language requirements. In addition, they contain new more strict requirements for language … (test).

Additional standards in Annex 10 demand to … (follow) more closely to standard phraseology in all air-ground exchanges and to use plain language when phraseology is not sufficient. Phraseology alone is unable to …(cover) all of the potential situations, particularly in critical or emergency situations. Therefore the PELA (Proficiency in English Language) test examines use of both ATC phraseology and plain English.
11. Match the numbers to the letters:

1. urgent; a) tongue;

2. mother; b) proficiency;

3. language; c) Amendments;

4. to adopt; d) efforts;

5. intensive; e) language;

6. working; f) requirements;

7. strict. g) problem.


12. Distribute the words below according to the parts of speech. Underline suffixes and prefixes. Translate the words.

Verb Noun Adverb Adjective

Establishment, century, settlements, growth, massive, basic, contribute, simplicity, operate, openness, frequently, conduct, urgent, intensive, various, proficiency, brought, Amendments, clear, addition, contain, strict, additional, closely, phraseology, plain, sufficient, cover, particularly.
13. Change these sentences to indirect speech (reported some time later).

1) Human error remains a significant safety concern. (He said)

2) Civil aviation has partly achieved its ultimate goal. (She said)

3) Safety program must deal with real problems. (He thought)

4) The global aviation safety plan will contribute the most to enhancing safety. (She thought)

5) Controllers’ slightest error may cause loss of human lives. (He proved)

6) Do they undergo strict medical examination at periodic intervals? (I asked)

7) What qualities are absolutely necessary for controllers? (I wondered)

8) When did English become a world language? (I asked)

9) You should follow standard phraseology in all air-ground exchanges. (I advised him)

10) Use plain language when phraseology is not sufficient. (I told her)

11) The worst disaster in aviation history occurred in 1977. (I knew)


14. Translate the following sentences into English:

Человеческий фактор является одним из важнейших аспектов авиационной безопасности. В течение последнего десятилетия ИКАО провела несколько симпозиумов и семинаров, связанных с человеческим фактором в авиации. Знание человеческого фактора может значительно повысить безопасность полетов. Программа по безопасности полетов и человеческому фактору является инструментом, который позволяет предупреждать человеческие ошибки при выполнении полетов.

Существует много технических средств, помогающих диспетчерам в их работе. Главным элементом в системе является диспетчер, т.к. он принимает окончательное решение в любой ситуации. Необходим строгий отбор и подготовка персонала. Диспетчер должен иметь хорошее физическое здоровье, умение работать в команде. Современные тренажеры позволяют имитировать все этапы полета, включая аварийные ситуации.

Электронные средства не могут заменить диспетчера. Они могут только помогать ему. Диспетчер не должен допускать ошибок, так как это может привести к потере человеческих жизней.



С. Discussion
1. Speak on the language problems in aviation. Here are some expressions used for giving yourself time to think:

Let me see... It's on the tip of my tongue... May I think about it for a moment?

Just a moment ... Hang on a sec. How can I best say this?

2. Look at the Internet and find some information about the latest disasters in aviation. Discuss them with your classmates.


Unit 9. Security
Active vocabulary
1. to initiate – инициировать, начать;

2. to reinforce – усилить, укрепить;

3. to eradicate – искоренить;

4. Annex – приложение;

5. audit – аудит;

6. proposal – предложение;

7. unanimously – единогласно, единодушно;

8. applicability – применимость;

9. domestic – внутренний, отечественный;

10. access – доступ;

11. interference – помеха, вмешательство;

12. to endorse – одобрить, поддержать, утвердить;

13. mandatory – обязательный;

14. restricted – ограниченный, узкий, для служебного пользования;

15. to enable – делать возможным, давать возможность, разрешать;

16. confused – беспорядочный, спутанный, сбивчивый;

17. to divert – отвлекать, отклонить;

18. solely – исключительно, только, единственно;

19. explosive – взрывной, взрывоопасный, взрывчатое вещество;

20. sample – образец, пример;

21. target – целевой, цель;

22. inquiry - запрос, расследование;

23. confusion – путаница, замешательство;

24. comprehension – понимание;

25. to review – пересмотреть, рассмотреть;

26. requirement – требование, условие.


Guess the meaning of the following words : international security standards, Assembly, terrorist attack, future acts of terror, сertification, airport personnel, aviation security strategy, central element, primitive, new technology, walk-through metal detector, X-ray machine, automatically, to analyze, extremely effective, biometric identification, absolute security.
A. ICAO’s Global Aviation Security Strategy
Since the events of 11 September 2001, the world aviation community has initiated a wide range of measures to increase security. New international security standards and a program of aviation security audits were adopted by all 188 Contracting States of ICAO.

The 33rd Session of its Assembly, which was opened after the September 2001 terrorist attack, initiated immediate action aimed at preventing, combating and eradicating future acts of terror against civil aviation. Annex 17 to the Convention on civil aviation was strengthened and many new standards adopted. In November 2001, The Council convened to consider specific proposals for inclusion in Amendment 10 to Annex 17. These proposals were unanimously agreed and the following issues were adopted in December 2001:

— Applicability of Annex 17 to domestic operations.

— Certification of screeners.

— Access control relating to air crew and airport personnel.

— In-flight security personnel and protection of the cockpit.

— Joint response to acts of unlawful interference.

— Definition of aircraft security check and security restricted area.

The long term component of ICAO’s global aviation security strategy is focused on three critical areas. One is to assess new and emerging threats to aviation security so as to develop an ability to initiate pre-emptive action.

The second is to continually monitor and upgrade existing security process.

And the third is to expedite the clearance of passengers whilst maintaining the highest level of security.

A central element of the ICAO strategy is the Aviation Security Plan of Action which includes regular, mandatory and systematic audits to enable evaluation of aviation security in all 187 Member States.


B. Aviation Security Equipment
Airport screening was established in the USA in January 1973. The equipment was primitive in comparison with today’s screening tools. Since then the equipment was improved and new technology was developed.

Introduced in 1972 the walk-through metal detector has become a standard screening tool at airports. This equipment has provided high quality detection but it has some disadvantages. The alarm system remains unchanged. Security agent must constantly watch and listen for an alarm to ensure detection. At busy airports there are multiple units resulting in multiple alarms and it is easy for a screener to become confused as to which unit has sounded an alarm. It is not only confusing for the operator but also noisy and confusing for passengers.

Later other equipment was offered by manufactures, that is a gate system. If no metal is detected the gate remains open. But if metal is detected the gate operates to divert the passenger to a secondary screening point.

The primary tool for searching hand luggage is the X-ray machine. The system operator must be well-trained to identify not only guns and knives, but improvised explosive devices. Many dangerous items cannot be identified with X-ray technology. This is because basic X-ray images only show shadows. Many dangerous items cannot be identified solely with X-ray equipment. If an operator clearly sees and identifies dangerous item the only way is to open the bags and to conduct a hand search.

Other security equipment, called Explosives Trace Detector (ETD) was installed at some airports. ETD is easier to use than any other screening equipment because all that is required of the operator is to take a sample. The equipment automatically analyzes this sample and notifies the operator when explosive item is detected.

The equipment for screening checked baggage was installed at many airports. It is the Explosives Detection System (EDS). EDS technology is extremely effective in the detection of the presence of explosives.

The latest security systems such as Machine Readable Travel Documents and biometric identification are being introduced at many airports to prevent civil aviation from becoming a terrorist target and to provide absolute security for air passengers.
A. Comprehension
1. Read text A. Arrange the sentences below in the order they appear in the text.

1) The world aviation community has initiated a wide range of measures to increase security.

2) A central element of the ICAO strategy is the Aviation Security Plan of Action.

3) The Council convened to consider specific proposals for inclusion in Amendment 10.

4) One critical area is to assess new and emerging threats to aviation security.

5) Certification of screeners was adopted in December 2001.


2. Read text B. Choose the sentences which contain information about:

1) The walk-through metal detector;

2) The gate system;

3) The X-ray machine;

4) Explosives Trace Detector;

5) The Explosives Detection System;

6) Machine Readable Travel Documents.
3. Answer the following questions:

1) Why has the world aviation community initiated a wide range of measures to increase security?

2) When were specific proposals adopted?

3) What is the long term component of ICAO’s security strategy focused on?

4) What is the central element of the ICAO strategy?

5) Where was airport screening established?

6) What has become a standard screening tool at airports?

7) What disadvantages does the walk-through metal detector have?

8) Why can’t many dangerous items be identified with X-ray technology?

9) What security equipment is easier to use than any other screening equipment?

10) Where is EDS technology extremely effective?

11) Why is biometric identification being introduced at many airports?


B. Vocabulary practice
1. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1) The 33rd Session initiated immediate action aimed at preventing future acts of terror against civil aviation.

2) The second critical area is to continually monitor and upgrade existing security process.

3) A central element of the ICAO strategy is the Aviation Security Program.

4) The walk-through metal detector has provided low quality detection.

5) If no metal is detected the gate remains open.

6) The primary tool for searching hand luggage is the Explosives Detection System.

7) The equipment notifies the operator when explosive item is detected.

8) The latest security systems are Machine Readable Travel Documents and biometric identification.
2. Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the words only once.

Aviation, terrorist, unlawful, existing, enable, screening, become, explosive, take, biometric.

1)……….process; 6) ……. identification;

2) to.……evaluation; 7) to……a sample;

3)…………tool; 8)…... attack;

4) ………..interference; 9) to……confused;

5)……..devices; 10)……community.


3. Give Russian equivalents for:

1) to increase security;

2) immediate action;

3) to consider specific proposals;

4) protection of the cockpit;

5) unlawful interference;

6) to assess emerging threats;

7) to initiate pre-emptive action;

8) the clearance of passengers;

9) mandatory and systematic audits;

10) standard screening tool;

11) to ensure detection;

12) to divert the passenger;

13) improvised explosive devices;

14) to conduct a hand search;

15) Machine Readable Travel Documents.
4. Match the words in the left column to the synonyms in the right one:

1) restricted; a) instrument;

2) enable; b) limited;

3) proposal; c) allow;

4) tool; d) staff;

5) personnel; e) safety;

6) baggage; f) luggage;

7) sample; g) suggestion;

8) security; h) example;

9) detect; i) instant;

10) immediate. j) find.
5. Underline the correct word (s) in bold.

1) New international security standards were adopted / developed by Contracting States of ICAO.

2) Aviation Security Plan of Action includes regular audits/ standards to enable evaluation of aviation security.

3) The equipment was simple/ primitive in comparison with today’s screening tools.

4) The system operator must be well-trained/ educated to identify improvised explosive devices.

5) Basic X-ray lights/images only show shadows.

6) If an operator identifies dangerous item the only way is to make/conduct a hand search.

7) The latest/ last security systems are being introduced at many airports to provide absolute security for air passengers.
6. Fill in the correct preposition then make sentences using the completed phrases:

1) a wide range … measures;

2) Annex 17 … the Convention … civil aviation;

3) to be focused … three critical areas;

4) primitive … comparison … screening tools;

5) … busy airports;

6) confusing … the operator;

7) to be identified … X-ray technology;

8) equipment … screening;

9) to prevent … becoming a terrorist target;

10) effective … the detection … of explosives.
7. Give English equivalents for:

Мировое сообщество, широкий спектр мер, международные стандарты безопасности, предотвращение будущих актов террора, для включения в поправку, сертификация досмотра, защита кабины экипажа, незаконное вмешательство, глобальная стратегия, упреждающие меры, высокий уровень безопасности, регулярные аудиты, примитивны, стандартный инструмент скрининга, высокое качество, недостатки, сигнал тревоги, ручная кладь, самодельные взрывные устройства, взять образец, обнаружение, новейшие системы безопасности.


8. Put in the right kind of infinitive:

1) Security agent must constantly (listen) for an alarm.

2) It is easy for a screener (become) confused.

3) Many dangerous items cannot (identify) with X-ray technology.

4) Biometric identification is being introduced at many airports (provide) absolute security for air passengers.

5) One is (assess) new and emerging threats to aviation security.

6) An operator should (identify) dangerous items.

7) New provisions would address standardized English language.

8) All that is required of the operator is (take) a sample.


9. Read the text and put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.
Language and Aviation Safety
In December 1995 a Boeing 757 … (to fly) into a mountainside near Cali, Columbia, killing 160 people. The inquiry … (to reveal) that the pilots were confused about their location, a situation that resulted from their misinterpretation of the air traffic controller clearance to Cali. Less than one year after this accident, in November 1996, a Boeing 747 … (to collide) with an Ilyushin Il-76 near Delhi, India, killing everyone on board aircraft. The inquiry into this accident revealed that there … (to be) some confusion among the IL-76 flight crew, most of whom were not proficient in English, concerning the level to which the aircraft had been cleared to descend.

These two accidents … (to illustrate) how the lack of proficiency in a common language and poor comprehension of appropriate phraseology by flight crews and air traffic controllers, can (to contribute) to or result in an accident.

ICAO … (to involve) in language training for a good number of years. During the 1980s, ICAO prepared standardized training guideline entitled Aviation English for Air Traffic Controllers. A recent development in this area is ICAO’s decision to review radiotelephony phraseology. This process …(to involve) a comprehensive review of the existing provisions for air-ground and ground-ground voice communications in international civil aviation with the ultimate goal of developing enhanced communication procedures. New provisions would address both routine and non-routine communications, standardized English language testing requirement and procedures, and minimum skill-level requirements in the use of common English.

Safety may also … (to be) at risk when the language of the documentation on board cannot … (to understand) by the local inspection authorities. A proposal by the ICAO Air Navigation Commission to amend several annexes by introducing a requirement to translate on board documents into English … (to adopt) by the ICAO Council early 2001.

The same requirements … (to be) just essential for air-ground radio communications. The proper use of aeronautical phraseology … (to be) an important element in reducing the risk of misunderstandings. The lack of knowledge of the English language can be a burden to pilots and air traffic controllers, and … (to continue) to be a problem in international operations.

There is a need, therefore, to establish requirements enhancing the minimum performance standards for radiotelephony phraseology and use of the English language by air traffic controllers and pilots engaged in international operations.


10. Read text B. Arrange the sentences below in the order they appear in the text.

1) The proper use of aeronautical phraseology is an important element in reducing the risk of misunderstandings.

2) A Boeing 747 collided with an Ilyushin Il-76 near Delhi.

3) There is a need to establish requirements enhancing the minimum performance standards for radiotelephony phraseology.

4) The lack of proficiency in a common language can result in an accident.

5) A recent development is ICAO’s decision to review radiotelephony phraseology.
11. Find in the text the examples of Participle 1 and Participle 2. Fill in the following table:


PARTICIPLE 1

PARTICIPLE 2

























12. Match the numbers to the letters:

1. poor; a) training;

2. existing; b) provisions;

3. language; c) goal;

4. ultimate; d) requirements;

5. to establish; e) phraseology;

6. aeronautical; f) a burden;

7. to be. g) comprehension.
13. Form the nouns from the following verbs and give Russian equivalents:

To inquire, to locate, to interpret, to collide, to comprehend, to train, to provide, to communicate, to propose, to misunderstand, to perform.


14. Translate the following sentences into English:

После событий 11 сентября 2001 года, мировое сообщество авиации инициировало широкий спектр мер по повышению безопасности. Были приняты новые международные стандарты безопасности.

Долгосрочная составляющая глобальной стратегии по авиационной безопасности ИКАО сосредоточена на трех важнейших областях. Первая заключается в оценке возникающих угроз авиационной безопасности. Вторая заключается в непрерывном контроле и обновлении существующего процесса безопасности. Центральным элементом стратегии ИКАО является План авиационной безопасности.

Введенный в 1972 году детектор металла стал стандартным инструментом скрининга в аэропортах. Некоторое время спустя другое оборудование было предложено производителями - система ворот. Если металл не обнаружен, ворота остаются открытыми. Основным инструментом для осмотра ручной клади является рентгеновский аппарат. Системный оператор должен быть хорошо обучен, чтобы определить взрывные устройства. Многие опасные предметы не могут быть идентифицированы.

Новейшие системы безопасности внедряются во многих аэропортах, чтобы обеспечить абсолютную безопасность авиапассажиров.
С. Discussion
1. Using the information given in the text “Aviation Security Equipment” speak on the equipment installed at the airports to provide security for air passengers.

2. Make a project on the topic “International Cooperation in the Fight for Aviation Safety” and present it in the class.




Каталог: upload -> 2015
2015 -> Загрузка приставки зависает на надписи “Eltex” (рис. 2)
2015 -> «профилактика пролежней»
2015 -> Методическое указания по дисциплине «Заповедное дело»
2015 -> Учебное пособие по английскому языку «Профессиональная медицинская лексика»
2015 -> Методические рекомендации для самостоятельной работы студентов
2015 -> Методические рекомендации по кейс-методу. Достоинством пособия является наличие примеров готовых кейсов по дисциплинам история и обществознание
2015 -> Методическое пособие по теории алгоритмов структуры данных специальность 09. 02. 03
2015 -> Пломбировочные материалы


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