Беседа по теме «Проблема макроэкономической стабилизации в Республике Беларусь и пути ее решения»
Письменный перевод текста с английского языка на русский из первоисточника по специальности, отобранного магистрантом и утвержденного преподавателем.
Устное реферирование оригинального текста по специальности:
The crisis may encourage the president to allow the economic and political rejuvenation of a system made for inertia
The relentless collapse in the price of oil over the past few months has come as a big shock not only to the Russian economy, but also to its political system. As the price falls from its peak earlier in the year of $115 a barrel to below $50, the government faces some harsh choices. Fifty-two per cent of Russia’s budget revenues are derived from the energy sector. And even though the energy sector comprises only 27% of its total economy, the crisis has deflated much of Russia’s self-confidence, and will in the immediate term force the adoption of some drastic economic measures. In the long term, it may set Russia on a new political path.
The administration is facing a perfect storm of negative economic indicators. In his traditional interview the prime minister, stressed that Russia had not entirely recovered from the great recession of 2008-09, noting that “negative trends have been adding up in our economy for the past few years” and that “there were signs of crisis in the economy all along”. In addition to falling oil prices and “outside pressure”, the rouble crisis had been provoked by “speculation in the national currency”. He admitted that “the sanctions have cost our economy tens of billions of dollars”.
While the country managed to bounce back from the 9% drop in GDP in 2009, it won’t recover from this crisis so easily. Since 2012 the GDP growth rate has been declining sharply, and in 2014 registered a rise of barely 0.5%, with all forecasts predicting at least a 5% fall this year. A one-point interest rate rise in early December has done little to stop the precipitous decline.
Sanctions and the continued downward momentum of oil prices have inflicted powerful economic damage on Russia. Further government actions halted the slide, notably pumping capital into the banking system and ruling out capital controls. This maintained confidence in the banks and prevented panic withdrawals by depositors. Yet if the interest rates were kept at 17%, the economy would be ruined. Investment, already low, would fall further.
Чтение англоязычного текста социокультурной направленности и его реферирование на английском языке:
The US will close 15 military bases across Europe, US Defence Secretary Chuck Hagel has confirmed. The Pentagon says the move will save around $500m (£300m) a year, and comes as the US military seeks to shift its attention towards Asia. But the US has named RAF Lakenheath to be the first permanent European base for the F-35 aircraft.
The US currently has more than 60,000 troops stationed in Europe, mostly in Germany, Italy and the UK. The number will remain the same, as the US ramps up rotations within Europe for training programmes. Many of the closures affect smaller bases that were remnants of the Cold War.
But US officials also have finalised plans to cut about 500 military personnel from the Lajes military base in the Azores islands, which drew opposition from Portugal. The changes will mean a net reduction of about 2,000 US personnel in the UK over the next several years. In the UK, the US Air Force will leave RAF Mildenhall in Suffolk and RAF Alconbury and RAF Molesworth in Cambridgeshire.
Mr Hagel said he understood it would mean job losses and thanked those who had supported the US Air Force. "I know that this will result in a reduction of our local host nations workforces at some locations. I value the tremendous support they provided us for decades." Other countries with closing bases include Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy.
For some years now the US military has been reviewing its bases in Europe, eager to reduce its footprint to rationalise and cut costs. In part it is due to budget constraints but it is also driven by strategic changes as the Pentagon turns its gaze increasingly towards the Asia-Pacific.
RAF Mildenhall has been an important base for the Americans since the early 1950s when it was home to strategic bombers. Currently it houses US Air Force Special Forces and a fleet of air-to-air tankers.
The latter, though less glamorous than fast jets, are some of the most important elements of the USAF, described by one analyst as the "kryptonite" of modern air power. They enable combat and support aircraft to reach their targets and to remain over combat zones for the time needed to carry out their missions. It is likely that the KC-135 tankers from Mildenhall will move to a US base in Germany.